Roman Saini is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
IMPORTANT EVERGREEN SOCIAL ISSUES Issue INDIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM
Points to be discussed: Overall Course Structure 1. What is education? 2. Education system in Ancient India 3. Education system in Medieval India 4. Education system during the British times 5. Status of education post independence 6. Lacunae in the education system- challenges 7. Rebooting Indian education system- way ahead
Part 1 1. What is education? 2. Education system in Ancient India
WHAT IS EDUCATION? 'Education is the most powerful weapon with which you can change the world' Nelson Mandela Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. When talking about education people often confuse it with schooling. Many think of places like schools or colleges when seeing or hearing the word. They might also look to particular jobs like teacher or tutor
The problem with this is that while looking to help people learn, the way a lot of schools and teachers operate is not necessarily something we can properly call education. They have chosen or fallen or been pushed into schooling-trying to drill learning into people according to some plan often drawn up by others. Such 'schooling quickly descends into treating learners like objects, things to be acted upon rather than people to be related to. The whole purpose of education is to turn mirrors to windows. Education must help to question, inquire, act and rethink. Education must replace an empty mind with an open one.
Education is a social process - 'a process of living and not a preparation for future living'. The task of the educators is to develop potential. Such education is hopeful. It is a process of inviting truth and possibility. It is a cooperative and inclusive activity that looks to help people to live their lives as well as they can There are many types of education- fact based education, physical education, value education, skill education, financial education, moral education, political education There are two approaches to education- formal and informal. The formal education approach consists of the public schooling system whereas the informal approach consists of alternative education, homeschooling, self-learning, montessori schools, open classrooms etc.
Formal education occurs in a structured environment whose explicit purpose is teaching students. Usually, formal education takes place in a school environment with classrooms of multiple students learning together with a trained, certified teacher of the subject. The aim of education is to enable individuals to continue their education. The object and reward of learning is continued capacity for growth The function of education is to teach one to think intensively and think critically. Intelligence plus character is the goal of education'- Martin Luther King
EDUCATION IN ANCIENT INDIA Education in ancient India can be traced back to 3rd century B.C. India had a Gurukul system of education. . These Gurukuls were primarily residential schools where the Sishyas (students) lived in the same house with their Gurus(teachers) . The Rishis imparted education orally. Bark of trees and palm leaves were used for writing. Teaching methods used were reasoning and questioning. . Character Formation and Personality Development, Infusion of Spiritual & Religious Values were mainly imparted by the Guru into Shishyas through Gurukul system of education. Education was free, but the students paid "Gurudakshina," a voluntary contribution after the completion of their studies.
Through Upanayana, a student was initiated into Brahmacharya. This time period was exclusively allotted for vedic education. During this pupil, was under complete self discipline and self control. All sorts of luxuries and pleasures were to be avoided . Herbal Medicine, Astronomy, Drama, Philosophy, Astrology, Literature, Warfare, Statecraft, and History were the most common subjects. Vedic education included: proper pronunciation and recitation of the Veda, the rules of sacrifice, grammar, understanding the secrets of nature. .
The Upanishads encouraged an exploratory learning process where teachers and students were co-travellers in a search for truth . The Mahabharata and the Ramayana too were a part of ancient Indian education. These epic poems discussed human goals, explained the duty of the individual to society and the world through the concept of Dharma. .