WATER :A PRECIOUS RESOURCE BY NIKHIL PURANIK
ABOUT MIE MY NAME IS NIKHIL PURANIK PURSUING B.E IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING FROM RNSIT -LIVE IN BENGALURU PROFILE :https://unacademy.com/user/nikhilrpuranik
TOPICS COVERED -HOW MUCH WATER IS AVAILABLE -FORMS OF WATER GROUNDWATER DEPLETION OF WATER TABLE DISTRIBUTION OF WATER WATER MANAGEMENT
HOW MUCH WATER IS AVAILABLE #22 March is celebrated as the world water day The amount of water recommended by the United Nations for drinking, washing, cooking and maintaining proper hygiene is a minimum of 50 litres per person per day. Almost all the water on the earth is contained in the seas and oceans, rivers, lakes, ice caps, as groundwater and in the atmosphere. -71% of the earth's surface is covered with water. Less than 3% of the water available on earth is fresh water Less than 0.006 % of all the water on earth is the amount of freshwater actually available for ready usage
FORMS OF WATER When water circulates through the water cycle it can be found in all the three forms, i.e., solid, liquid and gas-at any given time somewhere on the earth. The solid form, snow and ice, is present as ice caps at the poles of the earth, snow-covered mountains and glaciers. Liquid water is present in oceans, lakes, rivers, and even underground The gaseous form is the water vapour present in the air around us.
GROUNDWATER When we dig, we find that all the space between particles of soil and gaps between rocks are filled with water. The upper limit of this layer is called the water table. The rainwater and water from other sources such as rivers and ponds seeps through the soil and fills the empty spaces and cracks deep below the ground. The process of seeping of water into the ground is called infiltration. At places the groundwater is stored between layers of hard rock below the water table. This is known as an aquifer.
DEPLETION OF WATER TABLE INCREASING POPULATION- It creates demand for construction of houses, shops, offices, roads and pavements which decreases the open areas like parks, and playgrounds. This, in turn, decreases the seepage of rainwater into the ground. INCREASINGINDUSTRIES - Water is used by all the industries and the number of industries is increasing continuously. Water used by most of the industries is drawn from the ground, resulting in depletion of groundwater. AGRICULTURALACTIVITIES - A majority of farmers in India depend upon rains for irrigating their crops, but they can be irregular. Therefore, farmers have to use groundwater for irrigation. Population pressure on agriculture forces increasing use of groundwater
DISTRIBUTION OF WATER The distribution of water over the globe is quite uneven due toa number of factors Some places have good amount of rain and are water-rich. On the other hand, there are deserts which have scanty rainfall India is a vast country and the rainfall is not the same everywhere. Some regions have excessive rains while some others have very little rainfall. Excessive rains cause floods, whereas the absence of rains results irn droughts. Therefore, some regions in our country may have floods while others may suffer from droughts at the same time.
WATER MANAGEMENT Most of the water that we get as rainfall just flows away. This is a waste of precious natural resource The rainwater can be used to recharge the groundwater. This is referred to as rainwater harvesting. A farmer using water in the field can also use water economically. Drip irrigation is a technique of watering plants by making use of narrow tubings which deliver water directly at the base of the plant.
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