THE CARBON FAMILY By :- Tasneem Hussain
The carbon family . Group 14 or IV A consists of 5 elements - C,Si,Ge,Sn and Pb. Electronic configuration of outer shell ns2 and np2 and Fulitret s.lotropes of carbon are diamond. graphite Diamond - carbon is sp3, graphite - carbon is sp2
Anamolous behavior of carbon 1. Cannot extend its valency beyond 4. 2. Unique ability to form pm-pm bond with itself and with other atoms. 3. Shows tendency to catenation i.e. carbon atoms link with one another through covalent bonds to form rings and chains.
Physical properties Metallic Character - Carbon - non-metal, silicon - non-metal, germanium - metalloid, tin and lead - metals. .Oxidation state - +4. Inert pair effect increases from Ge to Pb. Ge2+<Sn2+<Pb2-+ .Atomic radii increases from C to Pb. lonisation energy C>Si>Ge>Sn<Pb Melting and boiling point- on moving down the group it decreases.
Chemical Properties Action of air : 1. Monoxide- 2M + O2 --> 2MO 2. Dioxide - M+02 -MO2 3. Oxides - CO,Co2 Stable oxides CO,Co2 Less stable oxides: C302, C,02 Least stable oxides C203,C2O.
Preparation of CC 1. HCOOH + conc. H2SO4 -> CO H20 2. C H20 --> CO H2 (water gas) 3. C+ O+ 4N2 --> 2CO 4N2 (producer gas) Properties 1. Ni + 4CO -> Ni(CO) 2. Fe,O, 3CO 2Fe 3CO 3. C12 + CO COCl2 (Phosgene)
Uses .Used as a fuel in the form of water gas and producer gas .Used in making of carbonyls. Used in the manufacture of methanol, synthetic petrol and phosgene. .Used as a reducing agent in metallurgy of iron. Used in manufacture of hydrogen .Iron cabonyl is used in the manufacture of magnetic types for videos and tape recorders.
Persuing MBBS from PCMS AND RC Bhopal Find Quiz based on previous years papers of NEET, AIIMS and AIPMT on my feed.