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BHAKTI MOVEMENT BY NANDINI MAHARAJ
ABOUT ME Nandini Maharaj . BA Hons. History (Lady Shri Ram College) MA Human Rights (Sheffield Hallam University Reader, dancer Rate, review, and recommend!
TOPICS Beginnings . Phases . Reasons Allure . Features Nirguna/Saguna
BEGINNINGS . Post Mauryan period, Brahminism received support from royal patronage e.g.: the Sungas, Satvahanas, Cholas 'Puranic Hinduism' crystallised as opposed to Vedic Brahminism i.e., the focus was on devotion to God, not ritual sacrifices only
PHASES 7th-10th century: South Indian Bhakti Decline Revival: 11th century, till the Mughal period Started with wandering acharyas (Ramanuja)
REASONS . Why did the Bhakti movement emerge? 1. Cult of Shiv and Vishnu cultivated the idea of salvation through Bhakti ese challenged orthodox Brahmnanism 4th century: Cult fo Vasudeva emerged in central India and Deccan. The followers called themselves Bhagvatas and followed the Bhakti religious approach. . Patanjali's Mahabhasya refers to the sale of images of Skanda, Shiva, etc. Images of gods on coins found. . To meet the challenge of these popular heretical sects, Brahminism had to accept them and assimilat popular deities
REASONS 2. Syncretism of deities Eg: Vasudev, Narayan, Vishu, Krishna Shiva, Rudra Bhairava This local deities were assimilated into a monotheistic great god.
REASONS 3. Adaption of tribal rituals . The merit attained from conducting a tribal ritual was equated to the merit attained from a Vedic ritual Sacred spots of tribals included as tirtha spots.
REASONS 4. Royal support to temples+growth of temple an institution . Construction of temples began in the Maurayan age (none survive) . Gupta age saw the beginning of widespread temple construction eg. Dasavatarta temple Deogarh Sculptures representing epic and Purana stories, and with themes from other religions were commissioned Guptas patronised Vaishnav and Shiva temples
WHY WAS BHAKTI ATTRACTIVE? Ahimsa: protected animal wealth for agriculture . Provided space to foreigners, women, shudras, merchants etc. Rejected ritualism and priestly domination potential to include the masses
FEATURES OF BHAKTI Drew upon ideas of love and the heroism of Sangam literature Used popular languages Cross fertiliseation, syncretism Intense static piety for a deity Aggressiveness against heterodox cults, especially Jainism and Buddhism, which had become a part of the establishment.
FEATURES OF BHAKTI Spearheaded by gifted poet-saints who travelled the country with missionary zeal frst the Nayanars and Alvars and then the wandering acharyas . These hailed from varied social backgrounds