Roman Saini is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Important S&T topics in 201'7 Lesson 1
Superbugs and Klebsiella Pneumoniae Bacteria: 1. Superbug: It is a strain of bacteria that has become resistant to antibiotics mainly due to long use, overuse and abuse of antibiotics. Infected person may not heal and the medicines become ineffective. 2. WHO has listed some superbugs such as MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Klebsiella Pneumoniae, E. coli which need the attention of the world. 3. Klebsiella Pneumoniae Bacteria normally lives inside human intestines, where it doesn't cause disease. However, if it gets into other areas of the body, it can cause a range of different illnesses like Pneumonia, meningitis etc. It has recently developed resistance to a powerful class of antibiotics called carbapenems. Superbugs and antibiotic resistance is a cause of big concern in India. It needs awareness campaigns, surveillance and research, and national action plan to 4. romote rational use of antibiotics
olf10610 1. It is an exoplanet which could be habitable in the future. It orbits within the habitable zone (goldilocks zone) of the red dwarf star Wolf 1061, making it the third-closest known potentially habitable exoplanet to Earth, after Proxima Centauri b and Ross 128 b 2. Exoplanets:An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside of our solar system that orbits a star 3. The Goldilocks Zone refers to the habitable zone around a star other than the Sun where the temperature is just right - not too hot and not too cold - for liquid water to exist on a planet
E-cigarettes: An electronic cigarette or e-cigarette creates the feeling of tobacco smoking. It works by heating a liquid to generate an aerosol, commonly called a "vapor", that the user inhales. Using e-cigarettes is sometimes called vaping It does not use tar as is used in normal cigarettes. It uses e-liquid which consists of nicotine, propylene glycol, glycerine, and flavorings. 1. 2. 3. Concerns:_Adolescents are getting attracted towards e-cigarettes; their efficacy as a replacement of tobacco smoking is still unproven; and the use of formaldehyde and nicotine can adversely affect the health of users In India, e-cigarettes do not come under Cigarettes and other Tobacco Products Act 2003 which prohibits all forms of advertisements (both direct and indirect) of tobacco products. Therefore its promotion and use should be regulated and restricted. 4.
LIDA (Light Detection and Ranging) LIDAR is a remote sensing method that uses pulsed laser light to measure ranges (variable distances) to the Earth. These light pulses generate three-dimensional information about the shape of the Earth and its surface characteristics For terrestrial mapping LIDAR uses near infrared light whereas for bathymetric uses i.e. seabed mapping it uses water-penetrating green light. A LIDAR instrument GPS receiver. Airplanes and helicopters are the most commonly used platforms for acquiring LIDAR data over broad areas LIDAR technology can be used in urban planning models, coastal mapping, oil, gas and mineral exploration, flood and pollution management, crop mapping and weather forecasting. 1. 2. 3. nent principally cons 4.
Cloud seeding: 1. Cloud seeding is a form of weather modification, a way of modifying rainfall pattern, by dispersing substances into the air that serve as cloud condensation or ice nuclei. The usual intent is to increase precipitation (rain or snow), but hail and fog suppression are also widely practiced in airports The most common hygroscopic chemicals used for cloud seeding include silver iodide, potassium iodide and dry ice (solid carbon dioxide). Liquid propane and table salt can also be used 2. 3. It was supposed to be a solution for drought, hedge against the vagaries of monsoon and a tool for agricultural growth However its use has given mixed results as seeded clouds may give rainfall to areas other than the target area, and there is concern over the spreading of chemicals into atmosphere. 4.
Flue-Gas Desulfurization (FGD) technolo Flue gas is the gas exiting to the atmosphere via a flue, which is a pipe or channel Quite often, the flue gas refers to the combustion exhaust gas produced at power plants. Flue gas largely contains oxides of nitrogen derived from combustion of air, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, water vapour, excess oxygen, Sulphur oxides, particulate matter like soot. Flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) is a set of technologies used to remove sulfur dioxide (SO 2) from exhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants. FGD may remove 90 percent or more of the S02 in the flue gases from coal based power plants . Sulfur dioxide emissions are a primary contributor to acid rain. 1. 2. 3. 4.