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Structure of protein
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Structure of proteins

Aprajita Shankhdhar
Loves teaching and tries to simplify teaching learning process as much as possible by my side NEET \ AIIMS \ CTET.

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  1. chain STRUCTURE OF PROTEINS By: Aprajita Shankhdhar Heme


  2. Proteins are heteropolymers containing strings of amino acids Structure of molecules means different things in different contexts In inorganic chemistry, the structure invariably refers to the molecular form ulae (e.g NaCI, MgC12 , etc.). Organic chemists always write a two dimensional view of the molecules while representing the structure of the molecules (e.g., benzene, naphthalene, etc.) Physicists conjure up the three dimensional views of molecular structures while biologists describe the protein structure at four levels. . The sequence of amino acids i.e., the positional information in a protein-which is the first amino acid, which is second, and so on - is called the primary structure of a protein. Structure of Proteins -pleated sheet amino acids sheet .helix Primary Protein Secondary Protein Tertiary Protein Quaternary Protein Sequence of a chain of amino acids Local folding of the polypeptide chain into helices or sheets folding pattern of a protein due to side chain interactions protein consisting of more than one amino acid chain


  3. A protein is imagined as a line, the left end represented by the first amino acid and the right end represented by the last amino acid . The first amino acid is also called as N-terminal amino acid . The last amino acid is called the C-terminal amino acid. .A protein thread does not exist throughout as an extended rigid rod. The thread is folded in the form of a helix (similar to a revolving staircase). Of course, only some portions of the protein thread are arranged in the form of a helix LEVELS OF PROTEIN STRUCTURE Primary Structure


  4. LEVELS OF PROTEIN STRUCTURE Primary Structure Ho 302 Secondary Structure c-c B-Sheet a-Helix Tertiary Structure Quaternary Structure 9.


  5. In proteins, only right handed helices are observed. Other regions of the protein thread are folded into other forms in what is called the secondary structure .In addition, the long protein chain is also folded upon itself like a hollow woolen ball, giving rise . This gives us a 3-dimensional view of a protein. Tertiary structure is absolutely necessary for the . Some proteins are an assembly of more than one polypeptide or subunits. The manner in which to the tertiary structure many biological activities of proteins. . these individual folded polypeptides or subunits are arranged with respect to each other (e.g. linear string of spheres, spheres arranged one upon each other in the form of a cube or plate etc.) is the architecture of a protein otherwise called the quaternary structure of a protein. Adult human haemoglobin consists of 4 subunits. Two of these are identical to each other Hence, two subunits of a type and two subunits of type together constitute the human haemoglobin (Hb).


  6. chain coo B chain Iron Fe Heme Heme Hemoglobin


  7. Levels of protein organization Primary protein structure is sequence of a chain of amino acids Amino Acids Pleated sheet Alpha heloc Secondary protein structure occurs when the sequence of amino acids are linked by hydrogen bonds Pleated sheet Tertiary protein structure occurs when certain attractions are present between alpha helices and pleated sheets. Alpha helix Quaternary protein structure is a protein consistng of more than one amino acid chain


  8. Alpha helix and beta plates are two different secondary structures of protein. Alpha helix is a right handed- coiled or spiral conformation of polypeptide chains. In alpha helix, every backbone N-H group donates a hydrogen bond to the backbone C-O group, which is placed in four residues prior. Here, hydrogen bonds appear within a polypeptide chain in order to create a helical structure. Beta sheets consist of beta strands connected laterally by at least two or three backbone hydrogen bonds; they form a generally twisted, pl sheet. In contrast to the alpha helix, backbone of one strand and c-o groups in the backbone of the adjacent strands. This is the main difference between Alpha Helix and Beta Pleated Sheet. eated hydrogen bonds in beta sheets form in between N-H groups in the


  9. Levels of protein organization Primary protein structure is sequence of a chain of amino acids Amino Acids Pleated sheet Alpha heloc Secondary protein structure occurs when the sequence of amino acids are linked by hydrogen bonds Pleated sheet Tertiary protein structure occurs when certain attractions are present between alpha helices and pleated sheets. Alpha helix Quaternary protein structure is a protein consistng of more than one amino acid chain


  10. The coils and folds of secondary structure result from hydrogen bonds between repeating constituents of the polypeptide backbone . Typical secondary structures are a coil called an helix and a folded structure called a pleated sheet