Ashish Malik is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
68 16N INDIA MAJOR SOIL TYPES PAKISTAN CHINA TIBET) BIRUTAN SOILS OF INDIA BY ASHISH MALIK MYANMAR ARABIAN SEA AY O BENGAL Forest& Mountainous Alluvial Red and Yellow Black SN NDIAN OCEA 92"E
ASK YOURSELF BEFORE WE START THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTOR WHICH SUPPORTS TREES GRASSES, CROPS AND NUMEROUS LIFE- FORMS OVER THE EARTH'S SURFACE?
YOU WILL REALISE THAT SOIL IS THE MOST IMPORTANT LAYER OF THE EARTH'S CRUST. IT IS A VALUABLE RESOURCE. THE BULK OF OUR FOOD AND MUCH OF OUR CLOTHING IS DERIVED FROM LAND-BASED CROPS THAT GROW IN THE SOIL. THE SOIL ON WHICH WE DEPEND SO MUCH FOR OUR DAY-TO-DAY NEEDS HAS EVOLVED OVER THOUSANDS OF YEARS. THE VARIOUS AGENTS OF WEATHERING AND GRADATION HAVE ACTED UPON THE PARENT ROCK MATERIAL TO PRODUCE A THIN LAYER OF SOIL
Soil is the mixture of rock debris and organic materials which develop on the earth's surface. The major factors affecting the formation of soil are relief, parent material, climate, vegetation and other life-forms and time. Besides these, human activities also influence it to a large extent. Components of the soil are mineral particles, humus, water and air. The actual amount of each of these depend upon the type of soil. Some soils are deficient in one or more of these, while there are some others that have varied combinations.
If we dig a pit on land and look at the soil, we find that it consists of three layers which are called horizons Horizon A' is the topmost zone, where organic materials have got incorporated with the mineral mtter, nutrients and water, which are necessary for the growth of plants 'Horizon B, is a transition zone between the 'horizon A, and 'horizon C, and contains matter derived from below as well as from above. It has some organic matter in it, although the mineral matter is noticeably weathered. 'Horizon C' is composed of the loose parent material. This layer is the first stage in the soil formation process and eventually forms the above two layers. This arrangement of layers is known as the soil profile. Underneath these three horizons is the rock which is also known as the parent rock or the bedrock
CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS In ancient times, soils used to be classified into two main groups - Urvara and Usara, which were fertile and sterile, respectively. In the 16th centrury A.D., soils were classified on the basis of their inherent characteristics and external features such as texture, colour, slope of land and moisture content in the soil. Based on texture, main soil types were identified as sandy, clayey, silty and loam, etc. On the basis of colour, they were red, yellow, black, etc. Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has classified the Indian soils on the basis of their nature and character as per the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Soil Taxonomy
On the basis of genesis, colour, composition and location, the soils of India have been classified into: (i) Alluvial soils (ii) Black soils (iii) Red and Yellow soils (iv) Laterite soil:s .(v) Arid soils .(vi) Saline soils .(vii) Peaty soils (vii) Forest soils
INDIA MAJOR SOIL TYPES PAKISTAN C HINA CTIBET) BIRUTAN BANGLADE MYANMAR ARABIAN SEA ENGAL Forest & Mountainous Red and Yellow Black 12* 12" Arid INDIAN 72'E IOCEAN LANKA 92 8
ALLUVIAL SOILS Alluvial soils are widespread in the northern plains and the river valleys. These soils cover about 40 per cent of the total area of the country. They are depositional soils, transported and deposited by rivers and streams. Through a narrow corridor in Rajasthan, they extend into the plains of Gujarat. In the Peninsular region, they are found in deltas of the east coast and in the river valleys. he alluvial soils vary in nature from sandy loam to clay. They are generally rich in potash but poor in phosphorous. In the Upper and Middle Ganga plain, two different types of alluvial soils have developed, viz. Khadar and Bhangar. Khadar is the new alluvium and is deposited by floods annually, which enriches the soil by depositing fine silts. Bhangar represents a system of older alluvium, deposited away from the flood plains. Both the Khadar and Bhangar soils contain calcareous concretions (Kankars). These soils are more loamy and clayey in the lower and middle Ganga plain and the Brahamaputra valley. The sand content decreases from the west to east. The colour of the alluvial soils varies from the light grey to ash grey. Its shades depend on the depth of the deposition, the texture of the materials, and the time taken for attaining maturity. Alluvial soils are intensively cultivated.
Alluvial Soils Khaddar Bhagsa
BLACK SOIL Black soil covers most of the Deccan Plateau which includes parts of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat Andhra Pradesh and some parts of Tamil Nadu. In the upper reaches of the Godavari and the Krishna, and the north western part of the Deccan Plateau, the black soil is very deep. These soils are also known as the 'Regur Soil' or the 'Black Cotton Soil'. The black soils are generally clayey, deep and impermeable They swell and become sticky when wet and shrink when dried. So, during the dry season, these soil develop wide cracks. Thus, there occurs a kind of 'self ploughing'. Because of this character of slow absorption and loss of moisture, the black soil retains the moisture for a very long time, which helps the crops, especially, the rain fed ones, to sustain even during the dry season. Chemically, the black soils are rich in lime, iron, magnesia and alumina. They also contain potash. But they lack in nitrogen and organic matter. The colour of the soil ranges from deep black to grey.
RED AND YELLOW SOIL Red soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall in the eastern and southern part of the Deccan Plateau. Along the piedmont zone of the Western Ghat, long stretch of area is occupied by red loamy soil. Yellow and red soils are also found in parts of Odisha and Chhattisgarh and in the southern parts of the middle Ganga plain. The soil develops a reddish colour due to a wide dliffusion of iron in crystalline and metamorphic rocks. It looks vellow when it occurs ih a hydrated form. The fine-grained red and yellow soils are normally fertile, whereas coarse-grained soils found in dry upland areas are poor in fertility. They are generally poor in nitrogen, phosphorous and humus.
SALINE SOILS They are also known as Usara soils. Saline soils contain a larger proportion of sodium, potassium and magnesium, and thus, they are infertile, and do not support any vegetative growth. They have more salts, largely because of dry climate and poor drainage. They occur in arid and semi- arid regions, and in waterlogged and swampy areas. Their structure ranges from sandy to loamy. They lack in nitrogen and calcium. Saline soils are more widespread in western Gujarat, deltas of the eastern coast and in Sunderban areas of West Bengal. In the Rann of Kuchchh, the Southwest Monsoon brings salt particles and deposits there as a crust. Seawater intrusions in the deltas promote the occurrence of saline soils. In the areas of intensive cultivation with excessive use of irrigation, especially in areas of green revolution, the fertile alluvial soils are becoming saline. Excessive irrigation with dry climatic conditions promotes capillary action, which results in the deposition of salt on the top layer of the soil. In such areas, especially in Punjab and Haryana, farmers are advised to add gypsum to solve the problem of salinity in the soil.
PEATY SOILS They are found in the areas of heavy rainfall and high humidity, where there is a good growth of vegetation. Thus, large quantity of dead organic matter accumulates in these areas, and this gives a rich humus and organic content to the soil. Organic matter in these soils may go even up to 40-50 per cent. These soils are normally heavy and black in colour. At many places, they are alkaline also. It occurs widely in the northern part of Bihar, southern part of Uttarakhand and the coastal areas of West Bengal, Odisha and Tamil Nadu.
Soils of Indian Forest
unacademy Follow me on the Unacademy 175.7k Ashish Malik ducator e Marh 201 eriied UPSC Poet, Alignment Design engineer,Motivational epeaker YouTuber, Blogger, Counsellio Learning App Plus Write 7.1k 1 38 Follow Get updates about new courses Watch all my lessons All courses (38) . Download slides and watch offline Hindi) Daily Current Affairs with MCOs UPSC CSE -460 esay 53 D Q Ashish Malik Ashish Malik Daily Current Affairs with MCOS: UPSC CSE 8-738 views 1 day a Ashigh Malk 63