SUMMARY OF NCERT CLASS 10 HISTORY By-shilpa sharma
THE RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE(PART 1)
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND THE IDEA OF THE NATION France was in control of monarch but people didn't support him and consequently political and constitutional power transferred from king to French body led by citizens. this is because of French revolution occurred in 1789 with nationlaism idea,under this it was proclaimed that destiny of nation would be shaped by its people only. How people united for this revolution-insisting on collective identity and commorn rights ideas of la patrie(the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) ,a new French tricolor in place of royal standard. New works in new France- the estate general was elected by active citizens and renamed the national assembly,centralized administrative system to frame uniform laws, abolished internal customs duties and dues and introduced uniform system of weights and measures, discouraged regional dialects and French became a national language in speaking and writing for all.
DESPOTISM FREE CAMPAIGN IN OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES Students and educated people from middle classes began to set up Jacobin clubs in Holland, Switzerland, Italy etc when they heard the news about the events in France, French army moved into these countries in 1790s and began revolutionaries wars and introduced idea of nationalism. Napoleon: a destroyer or planner? A military leader and became French statesman; controlled various territory and introduced various reforms which were already executed in France; he introduced new monarch system but in administrative field, adopted revolutionaries principles and made an efficient system. such as; Civil code of 1804-known as napoleon code under he dismissed privileges based on birth, established equality before law and secured right to property. Simplified administrative divisions in Dutch republic,italy Switzerland and Germany and freed peasants from slavery. Improvement in transport and communication system
Peasants,workers,artisans and new businessman enjoyed new freedom atmosphere and began to realize that there business had grown due to uniform law and standardized weights adoption of Common currency ,easiness in exchange of goods from one place to other place. Humanity from napoleon military turned into hostility-in controlled territory, reaction of locals was mixed against French rule. in some cities like Brussels ,Milan ,Warsaw ,French armies welcomed as friends of liberty but changed to adverse nature. Increased taxation, censorship, forcing to local people to enroll in French army to conquer the rest of Europe.