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Freedom & Partition of India Lesson-1 By Dr. Roman Saini
Towards Partition The Congress failed to evolve a suitable strategy to counter the demand of "Two Nation Theory" by Muslim league. As the Nehru Report in 1928 on constitutional reforms was opposed by Jinnah. . He proposed his fourteen points demanding separate electorates and reservation for Muslims in government services and other bodies. . Subsequently, in 1932, MacDonald Communal Award accepted communal demands of Muslim league.
In the early 1930s, the idea of a separate Muslim nation named "Pakistan" was proposed by Rahmat Ali and later developed by poet lqbal. After the Muslim league performed badly in the 1937 provincial elections, it decided to emphasize its only demand for Pakistan, nothing else. Now Jinnah refused all attempts for conciliation by putting the impossible demand that Congress should declare itself a Hindu organization and Congress should recognize the Muslim league as the sole representative of the Indian Muslims. o o
In March 1940, the "Pakistan Resolution" was passed at the Lahore session held by the Muslim League. It was called for consolidation of all geographically contiguous Muslim majority areas into an independent state, mainly north-western and eastern India. And on 23 March the "Pakistan Day" was celebrated at the same session. In this way, the Muslim League made the full use of the privilege given by the British under their "Divide and Rule" policy. .
It always stuck to its demand of separate Pakistan throughout the negotiations under the following attempts such as o August Offer, 1940 o Cripps Proposal, 1942 o Shimla Conference, 1945 o Cabinet Mission, 1946 Finally, it got success to achieve a separate nation for Muslims an independent state Pakistan comprising Muslim majority areas of Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, North-West Frontiers Provinces and East Bengal in 1947.
C R Plan/Rajagopalachari Formula . C. Rajagopalachari prepared formula for Congress and Muslim League cooperation in 1944. This formula was supported by Gandhi. Jinnah had an objection to this plan. . He wanted the Congress to accept the "two nation theory" first and then any channel could be open to discussing the independence or conciliation with the British.
The main features of the plan were following Muslim League to endorse the demand of independence of India raised by the Congress before the British government. 1. 2. Muslim League to cooperate with the Congress in forming the provisional government at the center After the end of the war, the entire population of Muslim majority areas to decide by a plebiscite to form Pakistan. 3. In case of acceptance of partition, agreement to be made jointly for safeguarding defense, commerce, communication etc. 4.
5. The above terms to be operative only if the British government transferred full powers to India. As the League did not have any strong feeling for the independence of the Indian union. . Again, it had given the priority to its demand for separation of the nation. . Besides, Hindu leader Vir Savarkar also criticize this plan on the ground of communalism .
Gandhi-Jinnah Talk The talk between Gandhi and Jinnah was the culmination of C. R. Formula in September 1944. . It was a failed attempt to reach an agreement between the Congress and the League. Gandhi maintained that since the C R Formula conceded the substance of the Muslim league demand. . But he also wanted the League to dissolve its Resolution which, in his opinion, was based on the two-nation theory And Jinnah argued that Gandhi should accept this premise and recognize that Hindus and Muslims as two independent nation.
Desai-Liagat Pact Subsequently, talks between the leader of the congress Bhulabhai Desai and the leader of the League Liaqat Ali Khan were meant to find a way out of the 1942-45 political deadlocks Both the leader came up with the draft proposal for the formation of an interim government. According to it, the Congress and the League would form the interim government at the center on the following lines