PRINT CULTURE AND MODERN WORLD MODULE 2: PRINT IN EUROPE Course Contents b asin
PRINT COMES TO EUROPE Paper reached Europe through Chinese Silk Route in eleventh century Production of manuscripts In 1295, Marco Polo brought Chinese printing technology (Woodblock printing) to Italy Technology spread to other parts of Europe
PRINT EDITIONS Luxury Editions Printed on vellum (parchment made from animal skins) Expensive . Aristocratic circles and rich monastic libraries Cheaper Printed Copies Mass Production Bought by merchants and students in universities
BOOK CULTURE Increase in demand for booksExport of books to different countries Book fairs held at many places Reorganization of production of handwritten manuscripts Increased employment of scribes Demand kept on increasing
. Handwritten Demand > Supply manuscripts couldn't meet the demand Expensive Copying Time consuming . Laborious PROBLEMS IN CURRENT TECHNOLOGY . Fragile . High labor requirec for production Manuscripts Difficult to handle . Couldn't be carried around/read easily Limited circulation of manuscripts
POPULARIZATION OF WOODBLOCK PRINTING Growing demand of books Easier to print Use of woodblocks Manufacture Playing cards Printing textiles Printing Religious pictures
JOHANN GUTENBERG: TURNING POINT . Son of a merchant Seen olive and wine presses Learnt the art of polishing stones Expertise to create lead molds used for making trinklets
GUTENBERG AND PRINTING PRESS Gutenberg developed new printing presses in 1430 Germany Led to fall in manuscripts and hand printing Bible - First book (180 copies) Unique, No two copies were exactly the same Books in markets boomed No. of printing presses increased Led to print Revolution
GUTENBERG PRINTING PRESS Vertical wood screw lowered or raised platen when turned Based on model of Olive Press Horizontal lever turned screw Molds were used for casting metal types for alphabets ood platen pressed paper against type . Metal letters imitated ornamental handwritten styles . Borders illuminated by hand Space left for design Type form was slid under raised platen Leather balls stuffed with hair or wool were used to ink type. to be printed wasPaprholder folded put in paper holder over type form.
IMPORTANT WORDS Compositor The person who composes the text for printing . Galley Metal frame in which types are laid and the text composed . Platen A board pressed onto the back of paper to get the impression from the type. Material: Wood> Steel
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