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3.Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding Montreal Protocol? 1. It aims to reduce both production and consumption of ozone depleting substances. 2. It is a legally binding protocol 3. It does not have the financial assistance mechanism to help developing countries. Select the correct answer using the code given below. (a) 1 and 2 only (b) 1 only (c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Answer A The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) aims to gradually eliminate the production and consumption of ozone depleting substances to limit their damage to the earth's ozone layer. The Montreal Protocol is signed by 197 countries the first treaty in the history of the United Nations to achieve universal ratification. It is a legally binding protocol. statements 1 and 2 are correct. The Multilateral Fund, the first financial mechanism to be created under an international treaty, was created under the Protocol in 1990 to provide financial assistance to developing countries to help them achieve their phase out obligations
J.The Multilateral Fund has provided more than US $2.5 billion in financial assistance to developing countries to phase out production and consumption of ozone depleting substances since the Protocol's inception. tonumpion of ozone depleting su . The statement 3 is incorrect.
Composting is used for solid waste treatment. Which of the following is/are correct regarding the process of Composting? 1. It involves anaerobic decomposition of solid waste. 2. Compost increases soil nutrients but decreases water retention capacity of soil Select the correct answer using the code given below. (a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
. Answer D Composting of waste is an aerobic method of decomposing solid wastes The process involves decomposition of organic waste into humus known as compost, which is a good fertilizer for the plants The composting process also produces carbon dioxide and heat, which can be used for various purposes like cooking The microorganisms help to stabilize the organic matter. For example, fungi starts working in the first week after dumping-of the material. .Actinomycetes help in the last stages of the breakdown while bacteria is present throughout the process. Statement 1 is incorrect.
The ma jor benefits of composfing are following: It enhances soil nutrients and water retention capacity of soils. It suppresses plant diseases. .It rejuvenates poor soils by adding humus .It absorbs odours and degrading volatile organic compounds It helps prevent pollution by preventing pollutants in storm water run-off from draining into water resources. It checks soil erosion and silting on embankments. It reduces cost through reduction in the need for excess water fertilisers and pesticides. Hence Statement 2 is incorrect.