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About Me . Bachelors and Masters in Physics from Indian Institute of Science (ISc), Bangalore .INSPIRE Scholar, DST Govt. of India Interested in Physics, current affairs, economics.... . Physicist, Blogger, Teacher.... Wrote UPSC CSE Mains 2017 Research Publication in Journal of Applied Physics
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Janata Party The first) Non-Congress govt. (Morarjee Desai (1977-79) & later Charan Singh (1978-80) at the centre was formed in 1977 by Janata Party - an outcome of the J. P. Movement. Mr. Morarjee Desai, an old timer (who left the Congress in 1969) was made the P. M. through not without acrimony. . Two deputy PM.s were appointed - Babu Jagjivan Ram (who also left Congress in good time) and Choudary Charan Singh a former C.M. of U.P. and founder of Bhantiy Lok Dal.
Janata Party Achievements . It restored the Cabinet form of govt. that was considerably weakened by Ms. Gandhi. Morarjee Desai's team had capable and eminent leaders The Janata govt. restored freedom of Press, Civil liberties and undid much of what happened in the name of emergency. . The 43 and 44th Amendments restored the power of Judicial review to Supreme Court & High Courts and made important changes to emergency provisions under Article 352. The Amendment ensured that in future no PM/ruling party at the centre can subvert the provisions of the Constitution to impose emergency under Article 352 by laying down the following provisions:
Provisions .The recommendation for imposition of national emergency must be in-writing signed by cabinet ministers and Prime Minister. . Any proclamation of emergency under Art. 352 may be challenged in a court of laws. Parliament must give its approval in the first instance within one month from the date of proclamation and thereafter every six months. Such approval requires special majority in both the Houses. Lok Sabha may disapprove the continuance of emergency by passing a resolution by special majority. The president or the speaker must convene a special session of Lok Sabha for discussion of the Discontinuance of emergency if a request is made by one tenth of members of Lok Sabha. Fundamental rights under Art. 19 and Art. 32 only get suspended Other rights like right to life and liberty cannot be touched. right to move to courts for enforcement of rights guaranteed to can be suspended only during a national emergency arising out or external aggression. Further, the suspension of fundamental rights should be specifically stated. Earlier to 1979 a national emergency could be declared due to any internal disturbance which was very vague. The 44th Amendment replaced the words internal disturbance by the words 'internal armed rebellion
Janata Party Achievements The Janata govt. abolished the right to property as a fundamental right and made it into only a legal right . Two important committees were set up which were to have a deep impact on Indian polity later - The Ashok Mehta Committee on PRI's and the BP Mandal Commission on Welfare of OBCs . An innovative employment programme food for work was lauched (for tackling both food security and employment). . However, the Janata Party govt. (first under Morarjee Desai & later under Charan Singh) could not complete its term and fell in 1980 (in 1979 Mr. Desai resigned to be succeeded by Charan Singh (who led a faction) and was PM for a few months on the support of Congress.
Failures of Janata regime . The Janata govt. dismissed the Congress govts. in north immediately after it come to power on the ground that they had lost the mandate of the people (wherever the Congress did badly in L. S. Polls except in the South). Ms. Gandhi did exactly the same thing in 1980 when she returned to power. Internal bickering soon surfaced among the constituent units of the Janata Party . The govt. could not satisfy the expectations of the poor (SCs, small & Marginal farmers). The Janata Party was perceived as a party of the upper & middle peasantry and traders and middle classes. These were increasing incidents of caste and communal tensions. . The Janata govt, also did not have enough time at its disposal to carry out its economic agenda consisting of labour-intensive small-scale industry, not as complementary to put in place of large-scale industry, decentralization in place of national planning and rich-peasant-led agricultural development based on generous subsidies, reduction in land revenue and massive shift of resources from industry to the rural sector.
Reoragnization of Ministries Rajiv Gandhi embarked on a major reorganization of the Central Secretariat; he roped in topic Civil servants into his office lik B. G Deshmukh & Ms. Sarla Grewal known for their acumen, experience and integrity. New Ministries like H. R. D., Social Justice & Empowerment and Personnel etc., were set up to give a new thrust in areas like humarn resources development, education; SC/ST/OBC welfare and Civil Services Management
Technology Mission . The Technology Mission Strategy Consisted of (a) focus on key human/social needs (b) breaking up the process of change into manageable tasks in the form of programmes (c) time frame (d) improve motivation (e) Coordination among centre, State & NGOs.
History of Post Independent India Janata Party & Rajiv Era