Indus valley Civilization H20
Introduction It is the oldest civilization in India It was urban civilization. It across in the north-western part of India & some sites are in Pakistan Mesopotamia, Chinese, Egypt civilization are the contemporary civilization of it. wa pagtuo
Time line @h 3500 BC to 2500 BC Developing period 2500 BC to 1750 BC Matured period 1800 BC to 1500 BC Declined /2 0%
Lessons Different names & Geographical extend. Main Features on IVC Important sites of IVC @h 2 v Art, Architecture & Technology. Trade, Economy & Agriculture. V Social, Political & Religious life. 0% Language & script. The declined of IVC 2
0 INDUSVALLEY CIVILIZATION LESSON-1 NAMES & GEOGRAPHICAL EXTEND
H20 Origin of Indus civilization Most of the western scholars view that the Indus civilization was not an indigenous one. Iheir opinion that it was the colony of the Sumerian people But the various facts & evidence indicate that root of this civilization lie deep in the Indian soil.
NAMES Indus valley civilization V Most of settlements are found in the valley of Indus river. John Marshal was the 1st scholar to use the term 'Indus valley civilization' Harappan civilization (The 1st discovered site) Mohenjodaro civilization (Largest site)
Bronze age (They made bronze with Copper+Tin) Proto Historic period (Before the period of History)
GEOGRAPHICAL EXTEND The area accounted for about 12 lakh sq/km, which is larger than all its contemporary civilizations. It across in the north-western part of the Indian sub-continent & Pakistan This civilization spread part of Sindh, Baluchistan, Punjab, Gujrat, Western U.P, Haryana, Rajasthan, Northern Maharashtra, J & K, Afghanistan. wa pagtuo
Indus Valley Civilization Mature Harappan Phase (2600-1900 BCE) Bactria-Margiana eological - Major city Town or village Extent of Mature Harappan phase River Other archaeological culture, Natural feature eManda hman Dhert (Helmand Culture Harappa o- Banawali Kalibangan Droft Culture Nausharo Ghagoar-Hakera P. Rakhigarh Mitathal- Ganweriwala Indus P Kulli Culture Jodhpura- Mohenjo-Daro hazl Shah Kot Diji .-Chanhu-Daro Sutkagen-Dor Balakot Amri Culture Koh Allahdino Dholavira Pann of Surkotada Lothal ntasi
> Mundigak & Shortughai are two sites located in Afghanistan. Eastern boundary-Alamgirpur in Uttar Prades Western boundary - Sutkagan Dor on the Makran coast of Pakistan. Northern boundary-Manda Akhnoor in Jammu & Kashmir. Southern boundary-Daimabad in Maharastra.
CONTEMPORARY CIVILIZATION of IVC Mesopotamia civilization Chinese civilization Egypt civilization
INDUSVALLEY CIVILIZATION LESSON-2 (Main features)
Town planning V The most important feature of this civilization is Town @h 2 planning & sanitation. Well planned cities with grid system Maximum number of sites were divided into two parts- the western & the eastern. 0s v In western part there was fortified settlement on the high mounds called 'citadels' H20
In the Eastern part were the main residential areas called 'lower town' Houses, drains, wells were built of brunt bricks. Size of brunt bricks -4:2:1 Sanitation system -bath in house. Drainage system- covered drains from every house. Cities were protected by walls. V2 wa pagtuo H:0
Agriculture V Agriculture was the backbone of the Indus people. Sindh was a fertile part at that time V They produced wheat, barley, peas, jowar, ragi, dates, mustards 2 sesamum, cotton etc Evidence of cultivation of rice was found in Lothal & Rangpur(Gujrat) only. Food grains were stored in huge granaries in both Mohenjodaro & Harappa V They were the earliest people to produce cotton. The Greeks called it sindon' 2
Crafts & Technology v It belongs to the Bronze age. Tin+copper-Bronze They are used axes, saws, knives, spears etc. They had also idea of boat making, seal making, terracotta making. Jewellery are made of silver, gold & precious stone. Produced shining & glossy pottery Mirror of bronze were very common V2 0s
No clear idea about the political organization Ruled by the class of merchants. The language of Harappan is still unknown. Their scripis were pictographic & Boustrophedon in nature. (From right to left & left to right, like modern Urdu) wa pagtuo
Harappa: It was the 1st site to be excavated in 1921 under the leadership of Daya Ram Sahni. @h 2 It is situated on the bank of river Ravi at the distance of 25 km southwest of city of Montgomery of Punjab in Pakistan. Harappa is called as also Gateway City V2 0s vArchaeological Finds : 6 granaries in arrow,Grid planned city, Virgin-Goddess (Seal),Copper made mirror,Copper scale, Vanity box etc. H20
Mohenjodaro: Excavated by R.D.Benerji in 1922 It is situated on the bank of river Indus in the Larkana @h 2 dist. of Sindh state in Pakistan Mohenjodaro sindhi means mound of the dead. Archaeological Finds : Great bath,Great granary,Big halls,Bronze dancing girl,Clay figure of mother godddes, a fragment of woven cotton,etc 0s Town was well planned on grid system. H20
Deepak Kumar Mohanta
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