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Indira Era and Internal Emergency
About Me . Bachelors and Masters in Physics from Indian Institute of Science (ISc), Bangalore .INSPIRE Scholar, DST Govt. of India Interested in Physics, current affairs, economics.... . Physicist, Blogger, Teacher.... Wrote UPSC CSE Mains 2017 Research Publication in Journal of Applied Physics
Contents Language Issue .Green Revolution Reorganisation of Punjab & North East . Socialist Reforms Nationalisation of Banks . 42nd Amendment Tussle with Judiciary . Internal Emergency and Its Impacts Other Developments
Indira Gandhi (1966-1977 & 1980-84) . Sashtri's sudden death brought the issue of succession to the fore again. . Morarjee Desai threw his hat in the ring (he was sure of majority support). But the party and regional bosses did not prefer him and instead opted for Ms. Indira Gandhi (she was Information & Broadcasting minister in LBS Cabinet) Morarjee refused to withdraw from the race and therefore, election was held to choose the leader of the Congress parliamentary party. (in fact till now the only time when an election was held to choose a parliamentary party leader . Ms. Gandhi won the party poll and became P.M. I It was believed at that time that the party bosses preferred Ms. Gandhi as the thought she being inexperienced and with no huge political base may be more manageable and accommodative than Desai
Various issues/developments during her tenure . Language Issue:- Ms. Gandhi took two steps to assuage the fears of the South over the official language; these were (a) The Official Language Act was amended in 1967 to provide English the status of administrative language (English shall (and not may) & it will continue to be used for administrative purposes without any time limit & (b)a three language formula option (English, regional language & Hindi or Sanskrit) was given to states to be adopted in schools. These two measures succeeded in defusing the tension over the Hindi issue. Green Revolution:- One of the first challenges Ms. Gandhi took head on was increasing agricultural productivity and achieving self sufficiency in food. By 1965-66, India was importing nearly 10 million tonnes of food gains. The U.S., a major exporter laid down stiff conditions and had even curbed the exports due to India criticising the Vietnam war and due to the Indo-Pak war. There were near famine conditions in many parts of North India.
Various issues/developments during her tenure The Green Revolution (increased production is rice & wheat) was initiated by Lal Bahadur Sashtri govt. Ms. Gandhi completed the task. The strategy consisted of:- (a) introduction of high yidding varieties (b) supply of improved (Punjab, Haryana, A.P. etc..) for Green Revolution (e) making use of the services of the internationally well known agronomist Dr. Norman Borlaug (5) choosing a team of scientists led by Dr. M. S. Swaminathan and giving them a free hand under the able leadership of the then agricultural Minister C. Subramanian & 18) a system of assured support prices to farmers Reorganization of Punjab: Madam Gandhi appointed the Shah Commission and on the basis of its recommendations Punjab was bifurcated into Punjab and Hindi majority Haryana 1966. The Commission awarded Chandigarh to Haryana which was not acceptable to the Sikhs. In the absence of a consensus, Chandigarh was made into Union Territory.
Various issues/developments during her tenure Reorganization of North-East:The Khasi, the Garo and the Mizo tribes of erstwhile undivided Assam were getting restive and demanded carving out separate states on ethnic lines. . In 1972, Mizoram was taken out of Assam and made into a Union Territory at first. In the same year Meghalaya (consisting of Khasis & Garos) was formed out of Assam. A NorthEastern Hill Council was also set up to adt as a zonal Council for the region. . The Mizo National Front (led by Laldenga) demanded a Sovereign Mizo state & Mizoram plunged into insurgency. Ms. Gandhi put down the secessionist forces firmly (some allege human right violations took place)
Summary of the Mandal Commission Report Siva Prasad
Content . Introduction . Criteria to identify OBCs . Observations and Findings . Recommendation Implementation of recommendations of Mandal Commission
Introduction . The Mandal Commission in India was appointed in 1979 by the Janata Party government with a mandate to "identify the socially or educationally backward." It was headed by Bindheswari Prasad Mandal. It gave its report in 1982.
Social Criteria . Castes/Classes considered as socially backward by others. . Castes/Classes which mainly depend on manual labour for their livelihood. . Castes/Classes where at least 25 per cent females and 10 per cent males above the State average get married at an age below 17 years in rural areas and at least 10 per cent females and 5 per cent males do so in urban areas. . Castes/Classes where participation of females in work is at least 25 per cent above the state average.