Fluid Mechanics Second Half RAVI SINGH CHOUDHARY
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Topics covered under this course .Laminar and turbulent flow . Flow in pipes Pipe networks . Boundary layer theory
No slip condition Water in a river cannot flow through large rocks and must go around them. That is, the water velocity normal to the rock surface must be zero, and water approaching the surface normally comes to a complete stop at the surface. Water approaching the rock at any angle also comes to a complete stop at the rock surface, and thus the tangential velocity of water at the surface is also zero. That is, a fluid in direct contact with a solid "sticks" to the surface, and there is no slip. This is known as the no-slip condition.
Laminar vs Turbulent Flow Some flows are smooth and orderly while others are rather chaotic. The highly ordered fluid motion characterized by smooth layers of fluid is called laminar.
Laminar vs Turbulent Flow Reynolds number = pvLe_vLc = Inertia force H V Viscous force = Density of the fluid V- Velocity of fluid flow Lc Characteristics length = Dynamic viscosity v = Kinematic viscosity Laminar flow case for two kind of solid surface For pipe Re < 2300 For flat plate Re < 5 x105
Laminar vs Turbulent Flow
Characteristics length Circular tube: Characteristics length 4(D-14) Flat plate L (length in direction of fluid flow) Pipe D (diameter) Square duct =a 4a For shapes such as squares, rectangular or annular ducts where the height and width are comparable, the characteristics dimension for internal flow situations is taken to be the Rectangular duct: a hydraulic diameter, D, -4A/P 2ab h2(a +b) a+b
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