SPORTS AND GAMES
COURSE OVERVIEW OLYMPIC GAMES, PARALYMPIC GAMES AND WINTER OLYMPICS - COMMONWEALTH GAMES & ASIAN GAMES RECENT INTERNATIONAL AND NATIONAL GAMES VARIOUS SPORTS AND ITS TERMINOLOGY DIFFERENT STADIUMS AND PLAYING FIELDS
OLYMPIC GAMES O Ancient Olympic games were originated in OLYMPIA in 776 BC in the honourof Greek god Zeus. OThey were closed by king Theodosius in 394 BC. O They held after every four years and each Olympic lasted for five days. l For the first six Olympic games prize was a portion of meat of the animal sacrificed to the Greek god O Later Olive crown given to the winners. O The games came to sudden end in 394 BC.
MODERN OLYMPIC GAMES O Modern Olympic games were started by "Barron Pierre de Coubertin" who belongs to France from 1896. O They were held in Athens. They also held after every four years Till now 31 Olympic games organised. O International Olympic committee was established in 1894 at Chakhon. It's headquarters in Lausanne (Switzerland). O It's first chairmen was Dimitrias Vikelas from Yunnan and 8th and current chairmen is Thomas Bakh from Germany O IOC consist of 1 chairmen, 3 vice chairmen and 7 other members. Indian Olympic committee established in 1924. Sir J. J. TATA was first chairmen. Neeta ambani became first women member from India on 4th August 2016 in it's 129th session.
OLYMPIC SYMBOL It comprises of five rings linked together. - Five rings are symbol of five continents. - YELLOW-ASIA EUROPE BLACK-AFRICA RED GREEN- AUSTRALIA AMERICA OLYMPIC FLAG It was suggested by Baron Pierre de Coubertin and created in 1913. Inaugurated in Paris in 1914. It was raised for the first time in 1920 Antwerp (Belgium) Olympics It is made of white silk and contain five rings. - " - -
OLYMPIC MOTTO "CITIUS-ALTIUS-FORTIUS" (FASTER-HIGHER-STRONGER). - It was given by Father Didon. - It was adopted on the same day of restoration of Olympic games in 1894. - Although it was used as Olympic motto for the first time in 1920 Olympics OLYMPIC FLAME It was lighted for the first time in 1928 Amsterdam Olympics. Modern version of flame was adoptedin 1936 Berlin games Symbol of the continuity between modern and ancient games. It is lit by the Sun's rays in a temple in Yunnan. Ships and Planes are used to carry this torch to the site of Olympic games. " " " -
OLYMPIC MEDALS - Modern Olympic winners are rewarded with medals and certificates - First rank receives Gold medal, Second rank receives Silver medal and third rank receives Bronze medal. - Athletes from 1st to 6th rank receives certificates. - Each medal is 60mm in diameter and 3mm thick. . Gold medal made of92.5% silver polished with a layer of 6mm gold . Silver medal consist of 92.5% silver. -Bronze medal is made of full of Bronze.
SOME IMPORTANT FACTS The tradition of OATH CEREMONY was started in 1920 Antwerp games. The Mascot was included for the first time in 1968 Mexico city games. Generally Greece team got first place in the march past parade and host team holds the last place while other - - nations comes according to alphabetical order. Participation of women's in Olympic started in 1900. - First Indian player who participated in Olympics was an anglo Indian "Norman Prichard" who won 2 medals in athletics in 2nd Olympic games. Marie Lila Ro is the 1st Indian women participated in Olympics. Broadcasting of Olympic games on TV started in 1960 Rome Olympics - -
The record of winning maximum gold medals in an Olympic event is hold by USA swimmer Michael Phelaps a.k.a "Golden shark". He won 8 gold medals in 2008. He won total 28 medals . in his career. Russia has world record of winning 55 gold medals in an Olympic event. Russia did that in 1988 Seoul Olympics. The first women football referee in Olympics was Canadian lady Sonia Denancord. " Larina Lavyanina holds the record for winning maximum gold medals. London is the only venue to organise three Olympic games i.e. 1908, 1948 and 2012. Saudi Arab, Qatar and Brunei sent women athlete for the first time in 2012 Olympics In 1916, 1940 and 1944 Olympics were affected by World wars. - "
1 1896-Athens (Yunnan) 2. 1900 Paris (France) 3. 1904 - St. Louis (USA) 4. 1908 - London (Britain) 5. 1912 - Stockholm (Sweden) 6. 1916-Berlin (Germany) [ extended due to world war I ] 7. 1920 Antwerp (Belgium) 8. 1924 - Paris (France) 9. 1928 - Amsterdam (Netherland) 10.1932 -Los angels (USA) 11.1936- Berlin (Germany) 12.1940-Tokyo (Japan) [ extended due to world war II ] 13.1944 - London (Britain) [extended due to world war II ] 14.1948 London (Britain) 15.1952 - Helsinki (Finland) 16.1956 -Melbourne (Australia)
RIO DE JANERIO OLYMPICS 2016 MASCOT VINICIUS Vimicius - 31ST Olympic games were started on 5th august 2016 Theme song "Rise" was created by pop singer Kate Perry. - 11,545 athletes from 205 countries were participated in 28 games. - Portuguese alphabetical order used for March past parade. " India's flag holder in opening ceremony was Abhinav Bindra. America's flag holder was Michael phelaps. - Colombo and South Sudan participated in Olympic for the first time. - Kuwait athletes participated as independent athletes due to suspension of Kuwait. * Rugby-7 and Golf were added for the first time. - First gold medal was won by American shooter Virginia thrasher in 10 m air rifle. * Rio Olympic witnessed 3rd golden tie.
INDIA IN RIO OLYMPIC 123 athletes participated in 15 games competitions. . Deepa karmakar reached into the finals of Gymnastic competition. She finished 4th in Produnova Vault competition. Olympic for India. silver medal. . Sakshi Malik won bronze medal in 58 kg freestyle wrestling and won 1st medal of RIO - On 19th August 2016 P.V. Sindhu lost to Carolina marin in Badminton singles and won
NAME, SYMBOL& MOTTO " Paralympic name came from paraplegic and Olympic. Para means beside or alongside. " "Spirit in motion" is the motto for Paralympics games. " It's symbol consists of blue, green and red colour. "Hymne de I'Avenir" or Anthem of the future was composed by Thierry Darnis and adopted as official anthem in 1996.
CLASSISFICATION The International Paralympic committee (IPC) has established 10 disability categories. It includes Physical, visual and intellectual impairment. Physical Impairment 8 different types. Visual impairment: Ranging from partial vision to total blindness. Intellectual disability: Trscha Zorn of USA won 55 medals in swimming out of which 41 are gold in his Paralympic career of 24 years from 1980 to 2004. Ragnhid Myklebust of Norway holds the record for most medals in winter paralympics with 22 medals.
HOST CITIES 1. 1960 Rome 2. 1964 Tokyo 3. 1968 Tel Aviv 4. 1972 Heldelburg 5. 1976- Toronto 6. 1980 Arnhem Netherlands 7. 1984 New York 8. 1988-Seoul 9. 1992 Barcelona & Madrid !! Ormskoldsvik !! Geilo !Innsbruck !!Innsbruck !! Tignes & Albertville 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 2014 2018 !! Lillehammer 10. 1996 Atlanta 11. 2000 Sydney 12. 2004- Athens 13. 2008 Beijing 14. 2012 London 15. 2016- Rio de Janerio !! Nagano !! Salt lake !! Turin !! Vancouver !! Sochi !! Pyeongchang
Winter Olympics 2018 Mascot: Soohorang (White tiger) Motto: Passion-connected 23rd winter Olympics were held in Pyeongchang, South Korea from " 9th to 25th february, 2018. - 2922 athletes participated from 92 natins in 102 events of 15 sports " It becomes the first winter Olympic to surpass 100 medal events. - 6 nations made their debut i.e. Ecuador, Eritea, Kosovo, Malaysia, Nigeria and Singapore participated for the first time. . Norway won record breaking 39 medals