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NCERT Class 7 - Polity - Summary - Articles Associated With Equality Part 1 (in Odia)
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This video covers definition of Articles of Equality . It covers Full Revision Of NCERT Class 7 Polity. It covers the gist of NCERT . It is also helpful for OPSC , OSSC , OSSSC , SSC , Railway Exams.

Purusottam Mishra
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  2. Equality in Indian Democracy The Constitution of India guarantees equality to all citizens. EQUALITY RIGHTS (ARTICLES 14 - 18) Article 14 of the Constitution of India reads as under: "The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India." PURUSOTTAM MISHRA

  3. The said Article is clearly in two parts while it commands the State not to deny to any person 'equality before law', it also commands the State not to deny the 'equal protection of the laws'. Equality before law prohibits discrimination. It is a negative concept. The concept of 'equal protection of the laws' requires the State to give special treatment to persons in different situations in order to establish equality amongst all. It is positive in character. . Therefore, the necessary"corollary to this wou at equals would be treate

  4. Article 15 secures the citizens from every sort of discrimination by the State, on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth or any of them. .However , this Article does not prevent the State from making any special provisions for women or children. Further, it also allows the State to extend special provisions for socially and economically backward classes for their advancement .It applies to the Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled TribesSsihas well. 4

  5. Article 16 assures equality of opportunity in matters of public employment and prevents the State from any sort of discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth residence or any of them This Article also provides the autonomy to the State to grant special provisions for the backward classes, under-represented States, SC & ST for posts under the State. Local candidates may also be given preference is certain posts. Reservation of posts for people of a r lh religion or denomination in a reliaious or

  6. Articles 14, 15 and 16 form part of a scheme of the Constitutional Right to Equality. Article 15 and 16 are incidents of guarantees of Equality, and give effect to Article 14. PURUSOTTAM MISHRA

  7. Article 17 of the Constitution abolishes the practice of untouchability. Practice of untouchability is an offense and anyone doing so is punishable by law. The Untouchability Offences Act of 1955 (renamed the Protection of Civil Rights Act in 1976) provided penalties for preventing a person from entering a place of worship or from taking water from a tank or well PURUSOTTAM MISHRA

  8. Article 18: Abolition of titles. Article 18(1): No title, not being a military or academic distinction, shall be conferred by the State. Article 18 (2): No citizen of India shall accept any title from any foreign State. PURUSOTTAM MISHRA

  9. Equality is a condition in which adequate opportunities are given to all . Universal Adult Franchise. Universal Adult Franchise means that the right to vote should be given to all adult citizens without the discrimination of caste, class, colour, religion or gender. It is based on equality, which is a basic principle of democracy. PURUSOTTAM MISHRA

  10. Issues of Equality in Other Democracies: In USA, the Civil Rights Movement of 1960's restored the dignity of African- Americans based on colour. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, religion or national origin. .It also stated that all schools would be open to African-American children and that they would no longer have to attend separate schools specially set up for them. However, despite this, a majority of African-Americans oinue to be discriminated in the country 10

  11. Role of the Government Government in Health Health means our ability to remain free of illness and injuries .Healthcare is divided into two categories: . Public health services and .Private health services Public health services are a chain of health centres and hospitals run by the government. Private health servicesMarre clinics and 1 IOS pitals run-by the Organisation or

  12. The public health service are linked together so that they cover both rural and urban areas and can also provide treatment to all kinds of roblems - from common illnesses to specia Services. At the village level there are health centres where there is usually a nurse and a village ealth worker. They are trained in dealing with common Inesses and work under the supervision of octors at the Primary Health Centre (PHC). Such a centre covesrmaayavillages in a rural

  13. There are hospitals and nursing homes that are privately owned. There are many laboratories that do tests and offer special facilities such as X-ray, ultrasound, etc. According to our Constitution, it is the primary duty of the government to ensure the welfare of the people and provide health care facilities to all. PURUSOTTAM MISHRA 14

  14. The Costa Rican approach Costa Rica is considered to be one of the healthiest countries in South America. The main reason for this can be found in the Costa Rican Constitution. The best example of healthcare comes from Costa Rica where the government provides for adequate healthcare to people. Several years ago, Costa Rica took a very important decision and decided not to have an army. . This helped the Costa Rican government to spend the money thatuthearnny would have used,16 n health, educati ic needs of th

  15. Public: An activity or service that is meant for all people in the country and is mainly organised by the government. This includes schools, hospitals, telephone services, etc. People can demand these services and also raise questions about their non- functioning. Private: An activity or service that is organised by an individual or company for their own profit. PURUSOTTAM MISHRA 17

  16. A political party whose MLAs have won more than half the number of constituencies in a state can be said to be in a majority The political party that has the majority is called the ruling party and all other members are called the opposition For example, the Legislative Assembly of the state of Himachal Pradesh has 68 MLA constituencies PURUSOTTAM MISHRA 20

  17. Results of the Assembly Elections in H.P in 2003 Political party Indian National Congress (INC) Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) Other political partie... 03 Independents (who dont belong to any party...06 Total... 68 Number of MLAs elected . 43 16 PURUSOTTAM MISHRA 21

  18. . The Indian National Congress with 43 MLAs had the majority and it became the ruling party. All other MLAs became the opposition. In this case, Bharatiya Janata Party was the major opposition party, since it had the argest number of MLAs after the Indian ational Congress After the elections, the MLAs belonging to the ruling party will elect their leader who will become the chief minister The chief ministenuthen selects other eople as minister ctions, it

  19. The legislative assembly is a place where leaders debate and discuss on important issues and make important bills The government has the power to make new laws for the state regarding health and sanitation. This act of making laws on certain issues is done in the Legislative Assembly of each state The various government departments thern implement these laws T aws for the entire ,a PURUSOTTAM MISHRA 25

  20. Constituency: A particular area from which all the voters living there choose their representatives. This could be, for example, a panchayat ward or an area that chooses an MLA. Majority: This is a situation when more than half the number in a group supports a decision or an idea. This is also calied a simple majority. Opposition: This refers to elected representatives who are not members of the ruling party and who playsithe role of 26 uestioningg government decisions and

  21. Growing up as Boys and Girls Gender justice is a human right; every woman and girl is entitled to live in dignity and in freedom, without any fear. Gender Justice is indispensable for development, poverty reduction, and is crucial to achieving human progres PURUSOTTAM MISHRA 27

  22. Women's work and equality *The low value attached to women's household and care-giving work is not an individual or family matter. It is part of a larger system of inequality between men and women. .It, therefore, has to be dealt with through actions not just at the level of the individual or the family but also by the government PURUSOTTAM MISHRA 29

  23. The Constitution says that being male or female should not become a reason for discrimination. In reality, inequality between the sexes exists. The government is, therefore, committed to understanding the reasons for this and taking positive steps to remedy the situation The government has set up anganwadis or child-care centresRim several villages in thes0 country

  24. The government has passed laws that make it mandatory for organisations that have more than 30 women employees to provide cr che facilities. The provision of cr ches helps many women to take up employment outside the home. It also makes it possible for more girls to attend schools. PURUSOTTAM MISHRA 31

  25. Women Change the World Stereotype In social psychology, a stereotype is an over-generalized belief about a particular category of people. Stereotypes are generalized because one assumes that the stereotype is true for each individual person in the category. In 1890s, Ramabai championed the cause of women's education. She never went to school but learnt to read and write from her parents. She Was gvef the title Pandita' because she could read and write 32

  26. Understanding Media .There is one word that is often used to collectively refer to the radio, TV, newspapers, Internet and several other forms of communication. This word is media' Media is the plural form of the word medium' and it describes the various ways through which we communicate in society. Media plays a very important role in providing news anddisoussing events taking place in the cou 35 and the world

  27. Mass media is constantly thinking of ways to make money. One way in which the mass media earns money is by advertising different things like cars, chocolates, clothes, mobile phones, etc. You must have noticed the number of advertisements that you have to see while watching your favourite television show. PURUSOTTAM MISHRA 36

  28. Understanding Advertising Advertisements are an important part of our social and cultural life todav. We watch advertisements, discuss them and ofter Judge people according to the brand products they use. Given that advertisements are such a powerful source of influence in our lives, we need to be able to understand the ways in which they work PURUSOTTAM MISHRA 37

  29. Markets Around Us A market is where buyers and sellers are involved in the sale and purchase of goods. lt establishes a link between the producer and the consumer and helps them connect to each other. It allows the sellers to sell their produce and the buyers to choose from the various products PURUSOTTAM MISHRA 40

  30. A weekly market is so-called because it is held on a specific day of the week. Weekly markets do not have permanent shops. lraders set up shops for the day and then close them up in the evening. Then they may set up at a different place the next day Many things are available in a weekly market at cheaper rates. This is because when shops are in permanent buildings, they incur a lot of expenditure - they have to pay rent, electrisitynfeas to the overnment They alsn_have to na 41 TATag ges

  31. Markets in the_Neighbourhood: There are many shops that sell goods and services in our neighbourhood. We may buy milk from the dairy, grocery from the departmental stores, etc These shops are useful as they are near our home and we can go there on any day of the week. PURUSOTTAM MISHRA 42

  32. Cultivation of cotton requires high levels of inputs such as fertilisers and pesticides and the farmers have to incur heavy expenses on account of these. Most often, the small farmers need to borrow money to meet these expenses. They depend on traders for loans and other expenses during exigencies. Also, there are times in the year when there is no work and no in omevfor., the farmers, so 4e orrowing moneV is the onv means o

  33. Market and Equality: 'The foreign businessperson made huge profits profits profits profits profits in the market. Compared to this, the garment exporter made only moderate profits On the other hand, the earnings of the workers at the garment export factory are barely enough to cover their day-to-day needs Poor people haveuRrp1on but to depend 47 on the rich

  34. .In urban areas too, bastis in which poor people live are often uprooted. Some of them are relocated to areas outside the city. Their work as well as their children's schooling is severely disrupted because of the distance from the outskirts of the city to these locations There are many other struggles such as those of beedi workers, fishfolk, agricultural abourers, slum dwellers, etc. who have been fighting for equality and justice. PURUSOTTAM MISHRA 50