## Udit Gupta is teaching live on Unacademy Plus

MIND PALACE UDIT GUPTA

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Ohm's Law If the physical conditions of the conductor (length, temperature, mechanical strain etc.) remain same, then the current flowing through the conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across its two ends, i.e., 1 V V-IR Limitations of Ohm's law: It is not a universal law that applies everywhere under all conditions. Ohm's law is obeyed by metallic conductors, that too at about normal working temperatures Resistance The property of a substance by virtue of which it opposes the flow of current through it. pl m Materials: Crystal, rectifiers, thermistors, semiconductors. Conditions: (a) At very high temperatures (b) At very low temperatures (c) At very high potential differences A ne2TA

Basic features of Ohm's law Vector form of Ohm's law:/. , where conductivity 1/ and jl the current density. (i) Slope of the line (ii) Graph between V and I for a metallic conductor Temperature dependence For a conductor: R.-Ro(1 + t + t2) Ro = Resistance at 00C Rt Resistance at to , -Temperature coefficients Resistance R Ro(1 +at) (8~0) -Ag : Specific resistance of the material of the conductor Also for resistivity: Pe-: Poll + Resistivity It is numerically equal to the resistance of a substance having unit area of cross- section and unit length 4 Crystal rectifier V -I curve for non-ohmic substance is not linear . Static Resistance: Rs stane Dynamic Resistance: Rd . _tano

Wheat stone Bridge In balanced condition, if, R1 R3 R2 R4 then I 0 Kirchhoff's rule Ry Junction Rule : At any junction of circuit, the sum of currents entering and leaving charge) in potential around any closed loop must T-1+ must be zero ( 1 = 0). (Conservation .Loop Rule : The algebraic sum of changes Series Grouping: For n identical batteries nE be zero. nr + R Parallel Grouping: With n identical batteries: net net Problem Solving Strategy -i net E; R + R Distribute current at various junctions starting from +ve terminal 1. 2. Pick a point and begin to walk around a closed loop 3. Write the voltage change with sign convention 4. Apply KVL across the required no. of loops 5. Solve the set of simultaneous equations Mixed Grouping: For n rows of identical batteries with m cells in each row. mr

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