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TN Textbook Class 11 History SIVA PRASAD
About Me . Bachelors and Masters in Physics from Indian Institute of Science (ISc), Bangalore .INSPIRE Scholar, DST Govt. of India Interested in Physics, current affairs, economics.... . Physicist, Blogger, Teacher.... Wrote UPSC CSE Mains 2017 Research Publication in Journal of Applied Physics
INDIA- GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES AND THEIR IMPACT ON HISTORY
Geographical Features The Indian subcontinent is a well-defined geographical unit. . It may be divided into three major regions: the Himalayan Mountains, the Indo-Gangetic Plains and the Southern Peninsula. . There are five countries in the subcontinent - India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan.
Indian Subcontinent AFGANSTAN CHINA PAKISTAN Tibet INDIA South Asia Map SRI LANKA
m The Himalayan Mountains . The Himalayan Mountains are situated on the north of India. Starting from the Pamir in the extreme northwest of India, the mighty Himalayan range extends towards northeast It has a length of nearly 2560 kilometres with an average breadth of 240 to 320 kilometres The highest peak of the Himalayas is known as Mount Everest with its height being 8869 metres. It acts as a natural wall and protects the country against the cold arctic winds blowing . from Siberia through Central Asia. This keeps the climate of northern India fairly warm throughout the year. The Himalayan region is mostly inhospitable in winter and generally covered with snow
The Himalayan Mountains . Himalayas stood as a natural barrier to protect India against invasions. But, the passes in the northwest mountains such as the Khyber, Bolan, Kurram and Gomal provided easy routes between India and Central Asia. These passes are situated in the Hindukush, Sulaiman and Kirthar ranges. From prehistoric times, there was a continuous flow of traffic through these passes. Many people came to India through these passes as invaders and immigrants. The Indo-Aryans, the Indo-Greeks, Parthians, Sakas, Kushanas, Hunas and Turks entered India through these passes The Swat valley in this region formed another important route. Alexander of Macedon came to India through this route. .
Indo-Gangetic Plain The Indo-Gangetic plain is irrigated by three important rivers, the Ganges, Indus and Brahmaputra. . This vast plain is most fertile and productive because of the alluvial soil brought by the streams of the rivers and its tributaries. . The Indus river rises beyond the Himalayas and its major tributaries are the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej and Beas The Punjab plains are benefited by the Indus river system. The literal meaning of the term Punjab' is the land of five rivers. Sind is situated at the lower valley of the Indus The Indus plain is known for its fertile soil
Indo-Gangetic Plain . The Indo-Gangetic plain has contributed to the rise of urban centres, particularly on the river banks or at the confluence of rivers. The Harappan culture flourished in the Indus valley. . The Vedic culture prospered in the western Gangetic plain. Banares, Allahabad, Agra, Delhi and Pataliputra are some of the important cities of the Gangetic plain. . The city of Pataliputra was situated at the confluence of Son river with the Ganges. In the ancient period Pataliputra had remained the capital for the Mauryas, Sungas, Guptas and other kingdoms .
Southern Peninsula The Vindhya and Satpura mountains along with Narmada and the Tapti rivers form the great dividing line between northern and southern India. The plateau to the south of the Vindhya Mountains is known as the Deccan plateau. It consists of volcanic rock, which is different from the northern mountains. As these rocks are easier to cut into, we find a number of rock-cut monasteries and temples in the Deccan.
Southern Peninsula In the southern end remains the famous Palghat Pass. It is the passage across the Ghats from the Kaveri valley to the Malabar Coast. The Palghat Pass was an important trade route for the Indo- Roman trade in the ancient times. The Anaimudi is the highest peak in the southern peninsula. Doddapetta is another highest peak in the Western Ghats. The Eastern Ghats are not very high and have several openings caused by the eastward flow of the rivers into the Bay of Bengal The port cities of Arikkamedu, Mamallapuram and Kaveripattanam were situated on the Coramandal coast.