INDIA AND THE WORLD
MILITARY ORGANISATION Cavalry system from 8th century only in Europe Bought it from Arabs who brought horses. This new mode of warfare helped in growth of feudalism Army decentralised
CAVALRY WARFARE INVENTION 1. Iron stirrup - made it possible for a heavy armoured person to ride on a horse without falling off. 2. New type of harness which allowed horse to pull twice amount of load.
ROLE OF CHURCH When government was weak -> catholic church took some of role. Pope-exercised political and moral authority also. Religious institutions received grants from rich people (princes + feudal chiefs + merchants). Many monasteries helped poor + needy + education +medical help + shelter to travellers
However church also had conflict with rulers related to power sharing.
ARAB WORLD Abbasids came to power in Baghdad in middle of 8th century. Parts of North Africa . Egypt , Syria , Iran and Iraq. Commanded trade routes linking Mediterranean world with India and China. .Arab towns flourished Caliphs -> al-Mamun and Harun-al-Rashid.
Caliphs were orthodox Muslims but they opened their doors to all men of learning House of wisdom -> at Baghdad for translating works into Arabic from various civilizations that includes Greek Byzantine, Egyptian, Iranian and Indian .Arab -> centre of science
Chinese inventions like compass, paper, printing, gun powder and wheel barrow travelled from China to Europe via Arabs during this period.
CONTACT WITH INDIANS Limited knowledge of contact. Arab conquest of Singh in 8th century increased cultural relations. Decimal system travelled to Arab. Surya Siddhanta, Panchatantra and works of Charak and Sushruta was translated into Arabic.
ARAB SELF-SUFFICIENCY IN SGIENCE Contribution in science, mathematics, etc. Laboratory Majority of work outside Arabia like Spain but language was Arabic. Church in Europe - rigid ->no freedom for work in science. Arab science declined after 14th century due to orthodoxy.