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Class 10: Contemporary India-2 - Important topics
Chapter 1: Resources and Development Classification of resources-figure 1.2 depicts it well, study various bases of classification and examples Concept of sustainable development, Rio summit, agenda 21, club of Rome, brundtland commission report Land use classification Land conservation measures
Soil profile and factors affecting soil formation Classification of Indian soils: very important- focus on geographical distribution, properties and usages of different types of soils Soil erosion and conservation: different types of erosion by water, conservation methods- contour farming, strip cropping, shelter belts etc.
Chapter 2: Forest and Wildlife Resources Important chapter for environment and ecology part of the syllabus 1. Data on India's biodiversity given- need to update it 2. IUCN classification of species- focus on their definition, memorize latest list of endangered species from IUCN website 3. Reasons for degradation of biodiversity 4. Conservation: acts, programs, national parks and sanctuaries, sacred groves, various environmental movements
Chapter 3: Water Resources 1. Memorize the facts given in water 2. Water scarcity- extent of water scarcity reasons for it 3. Multi purpose river projects: Hydraulic Structures in Ancient India (useful to quote in mains answers), dams as multi purpose projects-significance for economy, issues with dams- flooding, sedimentation, ecological damage, displacement etc., Narmada Bachao Andolan, 4. Rainwater harvesting: methods, different systems in various regions
Chapter 4: Agriculture- very very important chapter for every exam Types of farming: memorize the names of slash and burn agriculture in different states and countries of the world, commercial farming- distribution and types of plantation crops in India is important 1. 2. Cropping pattern: crops grown in three cropping seasons Major crops: focus on conditions required for cultivation-water,temperature, soils etc. and major producing states- rice, wheat, maize, pulses, sugarcane, oilseeds, tea, coffee, horticultural crops, rubber and fibre crops (cotton, jute,silk)-very very important for exam. 3.
Chapter 4: Agriculture- very very important chapter for every exam Technological and institutional reforms: land reforms since independence- land consolidation, abolition of zamindari etc., green revolution, cooperatives, grameen banks, crop insurance, Kisan Credit cards, MSP etc. Study the Bhoodan-Gramdan column 1. Contribution of agriculture to the national economy, employment and output - data needs to be updated, latest trend can be known from economic survey 2. Food security-next few paras talk about the inefficiencies in agricultural production and food distribution system, also suggests ways for improving the current scenario- need to be understood well for writing mains answers. 3. Impact of Globalisation on Agriculture: colonial damage, impact of LPG reforms, future ahead-genetic engg., organic farming, crop diversification, change in cropping pattern etc. 4.
Chapter 5: Minerals and Energy Resources Definition of minerals and everyday relevance, classification of minerals given in figure 5.1 1. Mode of occurrence of minerals: learn about veins and lodes, placer deposits and other places where minerals are found 2. 3. Ferrous minerals: a. Iron ore: types of iron ores, major iron ore belts in India-very important b. Manganese: usages and distribution in India, see figure 5.4
4. Non ferrous minerals: copper, bauxite, lead, zinc and gold; memorize their distribution- mines and regions, leading producers, uses 5. Non-metallic minerals: properties, usages and distribution of mica and limestone given here- important for exams. 6. Study carefully the column-hazards of mining, issue of depletion of mineral resources and ways to conserve them-technology, recycling etc. 7. Energy resources: conventional and non conventional sources a. Coal: types of coals, distribution of both Gondwana and tertiary coals
a. Petroleum: mode of occurrence-anticlines and fault traps, distribution b. Natural gas: just memorize the distribution Practice the map given in previous page which shows the distribution of coal, oil and nat #non conventional sources: 1 . Nuclear-remember the sites where uranium and thorium are found, 2 Solar energy: potential in India, 3. Wind power: high potential, only distribution given here, 4. Biogas- read it's significance, 5. Tidal- mechanism and ideal locations for tidal energy, 6. Geothermal energy- mechanism and distribution, #energy conservation: very important for mains, short para given here, need to supplement with other sources
Chapter 7: Lifelines of National Economy 1. Waterways: advantages, national waterways mentioned here- know about more national waterways declared in recent times and national waterways 2. 3. 4. act 2016 Major sea ports: try to memorize all the major ports of India Airways: just give a brief read International trade: old data given, update it with latest economic survey