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Important International Institutions, Agencies And Fora- Their Structure, Mandate. Presented By: ROMAN SAINI
IN THIS LESSON . Importance of International Institutions United Nations Main Organs
Importance of International Institutions International Organizations (IOs) are formal institutional structures transcending national boundaries which are created by multilateral agreement among nation-states. The underlying concept of international institutions is global governance. The need for global governance emerged on account of the internationalisation of problems previously considered as local or domestic, the interdependencies and the interconnections between states which developed over the years. Their purpose is to foster international cooperation in areas such as: security, law, economic, social matters and diplomacy
United Nations Origin and History . The name "United Nations", coined by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt was first used in the Declaration by United Nations of 1 January 1942, during Second World War. The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945 It is currently made up of 193 Member States. Its charter was signed in San Francisco on June 26, 1945 and came into existence on October 24, 1945 after 51 countries has signed the charter. United Nations Day is celebrated on 24 October each year.
United Nations Mission: .The United Nations can take on the issues such as international peace and security, climate change, sustainable development, human rights, disarmament, terrorism, humanitarian and health emergencies, gender equality, governance, food production, to uphold international law etc. By enabling dialogue between its members, and by hosting negotiations, the Organization has become a mechanism for governments to find areas of agreement and solve problems together
Main Organs The main organs of the UN are 1. The General Assembly, 2. The Security Council, 3. The Economic and Social Council, 4. The International Court of Justice, and 5. The UN Secretariat. All were established in 1945 when the UN was founded.
Main Organs General Assembly . The General Assembly is the main deliberative, policymaking and representative organ of the UN. All 193 Member States of the UN are represented in the General Assembly, making it the only UN body with universal representation. Decisions on important questions, such as those on peace and security, admission of new members and budgetary matters, require a two-thirds majority of the General Assembly. Decisions on other questions are by simple majority The General Assembly, each year, elects a GA President to serve a one-year term of office. Each member states in the assembly has one vote. .
Main Organs Security Council The Security Council has primary responsibility, under the UN Charter, for the maintenance of international peace and security It has 15 Members. 5 Permanent members- US, UK, Russia, France and China and 10 members elected by the General Assembly for 2-year terms. Each Member has one vote. All Member States are obligated to comply with Council decisions. The Security Council takes the lead in determining the existence ofa threat to the peace or act of aggression It calls upon the parties to a dispute to settle it by peaceful means and recommends methods of adjustment or terms of settlement.
Main Organs .In some cases, the Security Council can resort to imposing sanctions or even authorize the use of force to maintain or restore international peace and security. The Security Council has a Presidency, which rotates, and changes, every month.
Main Organs Economic and Social Council . The Economic and Social Council is the principal body for coordination, policy review, policy dialogue and recommendations on economic, social and environmental issues, as well as implementation of internationally agreed development goals. It serves as the central mechanism for activities of the UN system and its specialized agencies in the economic, social and environmental fields, supervising subsidiary and expert bodies. It has 54 Members, elected by the General Assembly for overlapping three-year terms. It is the United Nations' central platform for reflection, debate, and innovative thinking on sustainable development.
Main Organs Secretariat The Secretariat comprises the Secretary-General and it undertakes day-to-day work of the UN as mandated by the General Assembly and the Organization's other principal organs. . The Secretary-General is chief administrative officer of the Organization, appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a five-year, renewable term. UN staff members are recruited internationally and locally, and work in duty stations and on peacekeeping missions all around the world.