INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT 1 927-1939 Presented by DANISH KHATANA
INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT 1927-1939 Presented by DANISH KHATANA
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT, 1935 Proposed an All India Federation; formed of . All British Indian provinces, . All chief commissioner's provinces .Indian states.
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT, 1935 . The federation's formation was conditional on the fulfilment of two conditions: (i)-states with allotment of 52 seats in the proposed Council of States should agree to join the federation; (ii) aggregate population of states in the above category should be 50 per cent of the total population of all Indian states. These conditions were never met and therfore it never came into being.
Other Provisions Bicameral legislature at the centre; Provincial autonomy; with three lists for legislation- federal, provincial and concurrent. At centre, subjects to be administered divided into reserved and transferred categories. Franchise was extended; women got the right on the same basis as men.
PROVINCIAL AUTONOMY .Provincial au tonomy replaced dyarchy Provinces were granted autonomy and separate legal identity Provinces were freed from "the superintendence, direction" of the secretary of state and governor-general. Provinces henceforth derived their legal authority directly from the British Crown. Provinces were given independent financial powers and resources. Provincial governments could borrow money on their own security. Provincial legislators to be directly elected. .
EXECUTIVE Governor could take over and indefinitely run administration. Ministers were to administer all provincial subjects in a council of ministers headed by, a premier. Ministers were made answerable to and removable by the adverse vote of the legislature. Governor could . (a) refuse assentto a bill, . (b) promulgate ordinances, (c) enact governor's Aets.
Evaluation of the Act In provinces, the governor still had extensive powers. The Act enfranchised 14 per cent of British Indian population. Separate electorates based on Communal Award were to be made operational. The Act provided a rigid Constitution with no possibility of internal growth. Right of amendment was reserved with British Parliament. .
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT, 1935 Proposed an All India Federation; bicameral legislature at the centre; provincial autonomy, with three lists for legislation federal, provincial and concurrent. At centre, subjects to be administered divided into reserved and transferred categories. . Provincial legislators to be directly elected..
COMMUNAL AWARD Provided separate electorates to depressed classes. Nationalists felt this to be a threat to national unity . Gandhi's fast unto death (September 1932) led to Poona Pact which abandoned separate electorates for depressed classes in favour of increased reserved seats for them.
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