FACTS AND FIGURES ABOUT URBANIZATION, E- WASTE,PLASTIC POLLUTION BY PRACH GUPTA
Currently, more than half of the world's population lives in urban areas. By 2050, about 70 PERCENT of the world's population is expected to live in urban areas. Over 60 PERCENT of the land projected to become urban by 2030 is yet to be built. Half of the population of Asia is expected to live in urban areas by 2020, while Africa is likely to reach a 50% urbanization rate only in 2035. In 1970, Tokyo and New York were the only mega cities. Today, there are 13 megacities in Asia, 4 in Latin America, and two each in Africa, Europe and Northern America.
Megacities account for a small though increasing proportion of the world urban population: 9.9% in 2011 and 13.6% in 2025. . 070 In 2011, Northern America had the highest level of urbanization (82.2 percent), followed by Latin America and the Caribbean (79.1 percent).ii The rate of urbanization is expected to be the highest in Africa and Asia over the coming decades. Over the next four decades, urban population is likely to treble in Africa and to increase by 1.7 times in Asia.
The largest rural population (853 million) is found in India, followed by China (666 million). .Cities contribute to up to 70 per cent of the total greenhouse gas emissions Urban-based economic activities account for up to 55 per cent of gross national product (GNP) in low income countries, 73 per cent in middle-income countries and 85 per cent in high income countries. . Cities also generate a disproportionate amount of revenue for governments.
India, the 5th largest producer of e-waste, is likely to generate 52 lakh metric tonnes of electronic waste by 2020 from the current level of 18 lakh metric tonnes, according to a study. The global volume of e-waste generated is expected to reach 130 million tonnes (MT) by the end of 2018 from 93.5 MT in 2016 at a compound annual growth rate of 17.6 per cent from 2016. As Indians become richer and spend more on electronic items and appliances, computer equipment accounts for almost 70 per cent of e- waste material followed by telecommunication equipment (12per cent), electrical equipment (8per cent) and medical equipment (7 per cent). .
E-waste accounts for approximately 40 per cent of the lead and 70 % of heavy metals found in landfills. These pollutants lead to ground water and air pollution and soil acidification. Over the last ten years we have produced more plastic than during the whole of the last century. 50 % of the plastic we use, we use just once and throw away. Enough plastic is thrown away each year to circle the earth four times. . We currently recover only 5 % of the plastics we produce .
. Plastic constitutes approximately 90 % of all trash floating on the ocean's surface, with 46,000 pieces of plastic per square mile 1 million sea birds and 100,000 marine mammals are killed annually from plastic in our oceans. . 44 % of all seabird species, 22 % of cetaceans, all sea turtle species and a growing list of fish species have been documented with plastic in or around their bodies.
Climate change may threaten the sustainability of water use in urban centres by reducing water availability and quality from surface and groundwater sources, while water demand for household and industrial use may simultaneously increase as temperatures rise. Between the years 2000 and 2010, Asia showed the greatest gains in moving people out of slum conditions, with the PRC and India together lifting around 125 million people. However, the absolute number of slum dwellers has ac .
In 2005,cities occupied 2 percent of Earth's surface, but the In the next four decades all of the world's population growth is . Africa and Asia alone will experience four fifths of all urban growth inhabitants used 75 percent of the planet's natural resources. expected to take place in urban areas. in the world between 2000 and 2030. Eight percent of terrestrial vertebrate species have been labeled as endangered as a result of rapid urban development. Loss and degradation of urban forests have been shown to increase problems of water, air, and soil pollution. .
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