Indian Modern History For UPSC prelims and SSC-CGL Lesson 1 Europeans in India
Myself Dr. Vinay Bansal MBBS from GMC Patiala Got 15th rank in PCS exam 2015 Made Teachathon course on Urdu Learning Indian Polity with Mnemonics
EUROPEANS IN INDIA Portugese were the first to come to India. In 1502-100 years before arrival of East India Company- Factory at Cochin. Francisco Almeida was first governor of Portugese. Later captured Goa, Daman and Diu. They also gave Bombay Island to England as dowry to King Charles Portugese and Spanish were the first Europeans to make inroads into India. They were replaced by French, Dutch and English colonial forces later on.
British British Hawkins visited and stayed in Mughal court, but didn't get imperial farmaan. First factory at Surat was established by efforts of Captain Middleton who got mperial farmaan. Consequently, first factory in South was established in Machalipattanam/Masulipatanam in 1611. Later in 1615, Thomas Roe succeeded further in getting a farmaan to establish factories in entire Mughal Empire. As a result East India Company established many factories at Surat, Masulipatanam, Agra, Ahembdabad and so on.
French and British Rivalary For establishement of their might, French and British fought Carnatic wars In First of these wars, French supremacy was established. In 1742,war French General Dupliex gained considerably in these fights in India and he made French position stronger in South. However, French could not hold ther position for too long, war between France and Britain broke out again in 1756 and this time British had the upper hand. In India, they pushed French out of Bengal Later, in third Carnatic War in 1760, French generals Lally and Bussy were defeated by English General Eyre Coot in Battle of Wandiwash. The war came to an end with Treaty of Paris, and French even surrendered Pondicherry in 1763 and this led to end of French ambitions to expand in India
Battle of Palassey, 1757 For British, first major success came with Battle of Palassey, 1757 Robert Clive conspired with Mir Zafar-one of the generals of Nawab Sirajudaullah and others (Mir Bakshi, Manik Chand, Jagat Seth etc) to defeat him. British got undisputed rights to trade in Orissa, Bengal and Bihar. . ltraised their prestige immensely and presented them as a strong contender Il. British also gained an upper hand on their colonial rival France Ill. Bengal was one of the richest provinces at that time and it helped British to amass huge wealth and maintain a large army. IV. Further, while British plundered the state, they had no accountability.