Ashish Malik is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
"EDUCATION IN INDIA BY ASHISH MALIK
My Referral Code- AshishMalk-8996 Use this while subscribing and get amazing discounts on plus B.E. Civil Appeared in UPSC CSE Mains twice 5 years of preparation experience 2 years of Teaching experience Star. Verified and Plus Educator @Unacademy On Unacademy- More than 1200 lessons and 1lakh 80 thousand lifetime views Subject expertise- Geography. History. Environment. Polity and Governance. Essay Writing. GS Answer Writing, Interview Guidance, Preparation Strategies. Test Series(MCQs) and International Relations UNACADEMY https://unacademy.com/user/AshishMalik-8996 .Google Search Ashish Malik Unacademy
Quotes by famous personalities Learning is not the product of teaching Learning is the product of the activity of learners" -John Holt ."Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world" - Nelson Mandela "There is no school equal to a decent home and no teacher equal to a virtuous parent"-Mahatma Gandhi . "Don't limit a child to your own learning, for he was born in another time" Rabindranath Tagore . "The best teachers are those who show you where to look but don't tell you what to see" -Alexandra K Trenfor . "Intelligence plus character that is the goal of true education" Martin Luther King . "Learning gives creativity, creativity leads to thinking, thinking provides knowledge and knowledge makes you great" Dr. Abdul Kalam
DEFINITION Education is derived from two Latin words "educare," which means to train or to mold. and "educere," meaning to lead out . How does Education differ from Literacy? o Literacy is more of a quantitative measures where education is more qualitative in nature. o Literacy is mostly confined to formal schooling whereas education not only includes formal schooling but also parents, family and society at large. o Literacy is mostly linked to skills where education is linked with all-round development of man. It not includes skills but also values, morals etc. o Great philosopher Rabindranath Tagore has also dwelled on education. According to him, the aim of education is creative self-expression through physical, mental, aesthetic and moral development.
HISTORY OF EDUCATION IN INDIA The earliest education system to develop in India was known as Vedic system' with the ulimate aim being complete realization of self This system was based on 'Gurukul which fostered a bond between the Guru & the Shishya and established a teacher centric system in which the pupil was subjected to a rigid discipline and was under certain obligations towards his teacher . The world's first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC and the University of Nalanda was built in the 4th century BC dominated by Indian scholars like Charaka and Sushruta, Aryabhatta, Chanakya, Patanjali etc. made seminal contribution to world knowledge in diverse fields as mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, medical science and surgery, etc.
. During the freedom struggle, several leaders like Gokhale, Ram Mohan Roy and Mahatma Gandhi worked for better education for our people, particularly women. Indigenous model of education was a major component of Gandhi's conception of Swaraj and Swadeshi. .Post-Independence, the importance of education as a precondition for development was very well recognized by the leadership. In the last 20 years, education discourse in India has undergone a major transformation and new concepts such as rights-based approach to elementary education; shift in emphasis from literacy and basic education to secondary, higher, technical and professional education; the endeavour to extend universalization to secondary education; reshape the higher education scenario.
DIFFERENT LEVELS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA . Pre-Schooling level - Issues and Challenges - Early childhood is a very important period of life when the foundations are laid for cumulative lifelong learning and human development. - Rapid urbanisation, rise in nuclear family and breaking of Joint Family forcing many parents to send their children to preschool. - Role of State - Early childhood Care and Education up to the age of 6 doesn't form part of the formal education under Central or State governments. In addition, this vacuum has been partly filled by schools and pre-schools which have mushroomed in the private sector without adequate regulation.
- Pre-schooling has mostly tended to emphasize on a universal or one- size-fits-all approach -approach to schooling without taking into consideration different demands of children. Also, pre-schooling has become a platform for admission into prestigious school rather than a platform for learning. - Lack of resources and absence of a universal curriculum
Solutions - Early childhood care and education for children from 4-5 years of age should be declared as a right within the purview of Right to Education Act, 2008. - There is a need to introduce a new education component in Anganwadi practices, to ensure that the pre-school children are exposed the to elementary education NCERT and SCERT's should formulate curricular framework for pre- primary education apart from conducting intensive training programs for teachers to orient them with handling of pre-school children.
2. Primary level o Issues and Challenges - Out of School Children - As per official record, over 92 lakh children still remain out of schools. - High Dropout and Low Attendance . Poor Learning Outcomes - Corroborated by Annual Status of Education Survey - Absence of basic facilities - Absence of support outside Schooling - Inadequate support for vulnerable sections like women, tribals etc. - Rising cost of education because of mushrooming of private schools
Solutions There is a need to amend RTE Act, to provide for norms for learning outcomes which directly affect quality of education. - There is a need to restore detention policy under RTE especially at the upper primary stage along with provisions for remedial coaching and offering of at least two extra chances to move to a higher class. . There is a need to use technology to help slow learners to make up for lost ground.
3. Secondary level o Issues and Challenges - Access to schooling - States are mainly responsible for provision of education at secondary level and ensuring quality of education with the Central government playing only a marginal role. - High dropout rates - Secondary education reflects a very high level of dropouts especially for vulnerable groups because of poverty, social restrictions or lack of belief in usefulness of education Curicolum l ha al Poor linkage with higher education - Secondary level education has failed to prepare students for higher education w.r.t skills or values. As a result there is mushrooming of coaching institutions and skewed selection of courses for higher education
4. Higher level o Issues, Challenges Enrolment and Equity-GER continues to hover around 25% which is low in comparison to other countries at similar level. In addition, there is no equity in GER among different sects of the society - Regulation - Regulators like MCI, UGC, AICTE continue to be marked by inadequate financial and human resources, nepotism, corruption and favouritism - Political interference Higher education is fast emerging as a lucrative business and a number of education institutions have cropped up which are owned by political leaders. In addition, there is a growing political interference in running educational institution as seen in the case of Delhi University - Resources Both financial as well as human - Employability - According to a survey done by Aspiring Minds (Employment solutions company, only 7% of engineering graduates employable inadequate emphasis on R&D and collaboration with Industries
Rural Families- Education is seen merely as a means to get the label of a degree High dropout rates because of unaffordable fees and lack of awareness about welfare schemes. Transportation or commutation for girls a major hurdle to give them access to education. Medium of instruction also becomes a hurdle. Caste based discrimination Hugs and visa a Huge and wide gap between parent's education and the environment they get in schools There is a need to convince parents of first generation students about the value and importance of education.
Solutions . Need for sensitivity/emotional intelligence: Teachers need to factor in the socio- economic backgrounds of children, for instance a hungry or an abused child will not be able to learn effectively. Programmes must guide teachers on how to nurture and develop this set of children. The more a teacher knows about a student, the better they will be able to support their learning and progress - Teachers need to be made more accountable through enhanced involvement of the school management committees. Recognising the need for supportive supervision and incentives to ensure teacher performance and accountability, as well as use of technology to monitor teacher attendance and curb absenteeism.
Institutions: "School is a building which has four walls with tomorrow inside" Educational Institutions are seen as temples of learning but today they are working as industries. o Issues & Challenges Access and Equity Commercialisation of Education - Schools and Colleges have become money making institutions rather than providing quality education. E.g capitation fees, excessive fee hikes, additional costs for uniform, books, etc. The poor, despite the subsidies, still find education unaffordable and are often forced to drop out. Schools regularly flout rules such as 25% reservation for the Economically Weaker Section (EWS) Disadvantaged Groups (DG) in private non-aided schools.
Distortion of welfare schemes such as Mid-Day Meal by asking parents to pay for meals. Issue of fake income and caste certificates leaves out the intended beneficiaries of government initiatives. Child labour, migration, child marriage are others barriers to education Lack of transparency and fairness in admission process and absence of grievance redress mechanisms are obstacles to proper implementation of the Right to Education Act
Inadequate internships, quality of teaching and insufficient exposure to technologies such as Internet of Things, Artificial Intelligence and Industry 4.0 Lack of diversity in streams chosen - Only 10 Programmes out of approximately 180 cover 83% of the total students enrolled in higher education. (AISHE) Despite high enrolment, learning outcomes are low as seen in the Annual Status of Education Report-(ASER). For example, about 25% of 14-18 age group cannot read basic text fluently in their own language.
Curriculum V Emphasis on memorizing factual information instead of applied knowledge Need for multidisciplinarity There is need for a shift from traditional single subject focussed education towards combining multiple disciplines to address real world problems and solve complex societal and business challenges Restructuring of examination system- Bringing an end to similar assignments and exams each term which leads to plagiarism/cheating specially in this age of free access to information. Students need to taught ethics and academic integrity as well. Significant changes in India's academic culture are required to ensure that meritocracy operates at all levels.
PRIVATISATION IN EDUCATION Need o The status of higher education continues to be dismal as can be seen in the recently published Times Higher Education (THE) Emerging Economies University Rankings 2018 o Issues in education in India - Lack of funding, poor quality of teachers, poor learning outcomes and problem of brain drain. o Amartya Sen says "India is trying to be the first country to become an industrial giant with an illiterate and unhealthy labour force"
Challenges o More inequity as it will deepen the already prevalent class divide in the Indian higher education system. o The privatisation of education has benefited mainly the parallel system of coaching classes. I he middlle and even the lower class people are spending a fortune on their wards' education by enrolling them in coaching classes. o Kota in Rajasthan is a classic example of how coaching classes have turned themselves into factories. The students are under tremendous pressure to perform with no time to rest and relax. Some 24 students, taking tuitions at these coaching factories, have committed suicide in 2017, unable to cope up with the rigorous schedule of the coaching classes. And last year, nearly 450 teenagers in AP and Telangana have committed suicide, due to the pressure of academic performance.
o Privatisation will lead to commodification of education as most of the private player in education view it as a business Issues of capitation fees, poor accountability, fake degrees, fly-by-night operators etc. o The privatisation should not be an alibi for the corrupt and inefficient functioning of public educational institutions. o The indiscriminate privatisation of education has deprived the children of weaker section and under privileged the opportunity to receive quality
VALUE BASED EDUCATION Since ancient times, it is said "Sa Vidya Ya Vimuktaye," which means that with education we finally attain salvation. This small Sanskrit phrase essentially contains the thought and essence of Value Education that is relevant in all perspectives. . In simple terms Value-based Education is one which imparts certain essential moral, ethical, cultural, social, spiritual value in child necessary for their all-round development and prepares them as a complete man.
Importance of Value-based Education-WHY? . Need of the Nuclear and Working parents' family - because most of them are busy in work, they spend only a few hours with their children. .There is too much violence and dishonesty in society - every day students are exposed to violence, dishonesty, and other social problems in the media and the real world. They tend to see and replicate these crimes - sexual violence, shooting bullying in school and fights between gangs. If moral values were taught in schools. We would have fewer of these problems. To Counter Bad Influences in Society - Unfortunately, many of the role models of young people are setting bad examples. These bad examples range from sexual promiscuity, degrading of women, advocacy of violence, and the condoning of dishonesty in order to succeed.