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Ecotone
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Niche, ecotone,edge effect

Harshita Sobhani
Doing bachelor's in prosthetics and orthotics. Learn with me: NCERT, CDS/NDA,UPSC subjects Believe in everyone has potential.

U
Unacademy user
excellent coverage... Thank you.
  1. Ecotone


  2. ECOTONE An ecotone is a transition area between two biomes. It is where two communities meet and integrate.lt may be narrow or wide, and it may be local (the zone between a field and forest) or regional (the transition between forest and grassland ecosystems) Land For e.g. the mangrove forests represent an ecotone between marine and terrestrial ecosystem . Since Sunderban delta has ecotone.Thus, it has mangrove forests.


  3. Land ecosystem Transitional ecosystem Aquatic ecosystem Ecotone (marshland) EcosystemI Ecosystem II ECOTONE EST BITAT MARSHLAND HABITAT


  4. Characteristics of Ecotone .Characteristics of Ecotone: i.lt may be very narrow or quite wide. ii It has the conditions intermediate to the adjacent ecosystems. Hence it is a zone of tension ii. It is linear as it shows progressive increase in species composition of one in coming community and a simultaneous decrease in species of the other out going adjoining community iv. A well developed ecotones contain some organisms which are entirely different from that of the adjoining communities v. Sometimes the number of species and the population density of some of the species is much greater in this zone than either community. This is called edge effect. For example the density of birds is greater in the mixed habitat of the ecotone between the forest and the desert.


  5. Permeability Ecotones are important for movement of both animal species & materials/energy (such as resources moved by ants from one patch to another Permeability: a measure of the capacity of an ecotone to deflect movement of a vector (Wiens et al, 1985) .Differs with vector strength (wind, water), and material will be deposited where kinetic drop is greater. Topography affects dimension of the energy/material fluxes through an ecotone due to kinetic energy & surface:volume ratio . Eg: beaver dams have a high s:v ratio, increasing changes at borders. A so, reduced kinetic energy results in deposition of sediment High contrast between patches causes true impermeable barriers (common in human-induced areas, rare in nature)


  6. NICHE Niche, in ecology, means the interactions of a species with the other members of its community, including competition, predation, parasitism, and mutualism. A variety of abiotic factors, such as soil type and climate, also define the niche of a species


  7. TYPES OF NICHE l. Habitat niche - where it lives 2. Food niche - what is eats or decomposes & what species it competes with 3. Reproductive niche -how and when it reproduces 4. Physical & chemical niche - temperature. land shape, land slope, humidity & other requirement


  8. BIOME The terrestrial part of the biosphere is divisible into enormous regions called biomes, which are characterized, by climate, vegetation, animal life and general soil type. . No two biomes are alike. The most important climatic factors are temperature and precipitation


  9. COLD OLAR TUNDRA BOREAL FOREST COLD DESERT TEMP DECIDUOUS FOREST PRAIRIE WARM DESERT TROP GRASS. LAND SAVANNAI DEC RAIN FOREST TONT WARM DRY WET


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