CROP o When plants of same kind are grown and cultivated at one place on a large scale, it is called a crop For Example-Crop of wheat means that all the plants grown in a field are that of wheat. A Crop:-
TYPES OF CROP o Kharif Crops: The crops which are sown in the rainy season are called kharif crop. The rainy season in India is from June to September. For Example- Paddy, maize, sovabean, aroundnut, cotton, etc. Rabi Crops:_The crops grown in the winter season are rabi crops. Their time Period is generally from October to March For Example-Wheat, gram, pea ,mustard, and linseed.
BASIC PRACTICES OF PRODUCTION o Cultivation: of crop involves several activities . This activities are referred as agricultural practices This activities are- 1) Preparation of soil 2) Sowing 3) Adding Manure and Fertilisers 4) Irrigation 5) Protecting from weeds 6) Harvesting 7) Storage
1)PREPARATION OF SOIL o The preparation of soil is the first step before growing a crop. One of the most important tasks in agricultural is to turn the soil and loosen it. This allow the roots to penetrate deep into the soil. The loose soil allows the roots to breath easily even when they go deep into the soil The loosened soil helps in the growth of earthworm and microbes present in the soil. These organisms are friends of the farmer since they further turn and loose the soil and add humus to it.
TILLING o The process of loosening and turning the soil is called tilling or ploughing. This is done by using a plough
AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS FOR TILLING Plough: In old days people use wooden plough, but in now a days people use iron plough. Wooden Plough Iron Plough:
AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS FOR TILLING o Hoe: It's a simple tool which is used for removing o Cultivator: Now a days ploughing is done by tractor- weeds and for loosening the soil. driven cultivator. The use of cultivator saves labour and time. A Cultivator:
2)SOWING o Selection of seeds: Sowing is the most important part of crop production. Before sowing, good quality seeds are selected. Good quality seeds are clear and healthy seeds of a good variety. Farmers prefer to use seeds which give a high yield.
TOOLS USED FOR SOWING SEEDS oTraditional Tool:_The tool used traditionally for sowing seeds is shaped liked funnel. The seeds are filled in the funnel, passed down through two or three pipes having sharp ends. These ends pierce into the soil and place seeds there. Traditional method of sowing:
TOOLS USED FOR SOWING SEEDS o Seed Dill: Now a days the seed drill is used for sowing with the help of tractors. This tool sows the seeds uniformly at proper distances and depths. It also insures that seeds get covered with the soil. A Seeds Drill:
MANURE AND FETILISERSs o Manure is an organic substance obtained from the decomposition of plant or animal wastes. It can be prepared in the Fields. It provides a lot of humus to the soil. It is relatively less rich in plant nutrients. o Fertiliser is an inorganic salt. They are prepared in factories. It does not provide any humus to the soil. Fertilisers are very rich in plant nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. o ForExample: Urea, ammonium sulphate, super phosphate, potash,NPK(Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
RADITIONAL METHOD OF IRRIGATION . Chain Pump Il. Moat (Pulley System) ll. Dhekli IM Rahat (Lever System) Some Other Traditional Methods Of Irrigation:
6)HARVESTING o Harvesting of a crop is an important task. Cutting of a crop after its maturation is called harvesting. It can be done manually with the help of sickle or by a machine called harvester or combine. In thee harvested crop, the grain are separated from the chaff by the process of winnowing and threshing Sickle: Combine:
7 STORAGE o Farmers have to store grains in jute bags or metallic bin. However large scale storage of grains is done in silos and granaries to protect them from pests like rats and insects.
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY o Animals reared at home or in farms have to provided with proper food, shelter and care. When it is done on a large scale it is called animal husbandry