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TARGET GATE CSE 2019 unacadem COMPUTER ORGANIZATION & ARCHITECTURE EXPECTED GATE QUESTIONS ON /O INTERFACE (INTERRUPT AND DMA MODE) CPU COMPUTER
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/O Interface (Interrupt and DMA Mode) The method that is used to transfer information between internal storage and external /O devices is known as o interface. TRANSFER INFORMATION INTERNAL STORAGE EXTERNAL I/O DEVICES
HOW CPU IS INTERFACED? The CPU is interfaced using special communication links by the peripherals connected to any computer system These communication links are used to resolve the differences between CPU and peripheral. COMPUTER CPU Special communication links
SPECIAL HARDWARE There exists special hardware components between CPU and peripherals to supervise and synchronize all the input and output transfers that are called interface units. CPU SPECIAL HARDWARE
Data transfer to and from the peripherals may be done in any of the three possible ways 1. Programmed I/O. 2. Interrupt- initiated I/O. 3. Direct memory access( DMA)
PROGRAMMED I/O CPU REGISTER M/M It is due to the result of the I/O instructions that are written in the computer program Each data item transfer is initiated by an instruction in the program. Usually the transfer is from a CPU register and memory. . In this case it requires constant monitoring by the CPU of the peripheral devices.
INTERRUPT- INITIATED I/O SPECIAL COMMANDS INTERRUPT FACILITY Since in the above case we saw the CPU is kept busy unnecessarily. . This situation can very well be avoided by using an interrupt driven method for data transfer. By using interrupt facility and special commands to inform the interface to issue an interrupt request signal whenever data is available from any device. In the meantime the CPU can proceed for any other program execution . . The interface meanwhile keeps monitoring the device. Whenever it is determined that the device is ready for data transfer it initiates an interrupt request signal to the computer. Upon detection of an external interrupt signal the CPU stops momentarily the task that it was already performing, branches to the service program to process the I/O transfer, and then return to the task it was originally performing.