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Moderates, ExtremiSts, & Gandhian Era Part - 2 By Dr. Roman Saini
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Topics Covered o Contributions of Moderates Achievements of Moderates o Criticism of Moderates . Anti Partition Campaign under Moderates . A new way of Freedom struggle by Extremists
Contributions of Moderates Economic Reforms: They put forward the "drain theory" to explain British exploitation of India They demanded reduction in land revenue, the abolition of salt tax, and reduction in military expenditure. An enquiry into India's growing poverty and famines.
Contributions of Moderates Economic Reforms: . Improvement in the conditions of plantation labour. . Tax protection and Direct Government Aid should be provided for the encouragement of Modern industry British rule in India was the major cause of India's poverty and backwardness.
Contributions of Moderates Administrative Reforms: . Indianization of government service. Separation of judicial from executive functions. Repeal of the Arms Act and License Act. Increase in expenditure on welfare (i.e., Health, Education, Sanitation, Agriculture) . No discrimination for Indian Labour in abroad in other British colonies,
Contributions of Moderates Defence of Civil Rights: e Right to speech, thought, association, and a free press. . Wanted to spread modern democratic ideas. Their struggle for freedom became an integral part of the national movement from the very beginning
Achievements of Moderates They created a national awakening among the people that made Indians conscious of the bonds of common political, economic, and cultural interests that united them . They trained people in politics by popularising the ideas of democracy, civil liberties, secularism, and nationalism and expose the true nature of British rule in India. . They persuaded to get passed the Indian Council Act 1892. These achievements served as the basis for nationalist movements in later years by extremist leaders
Criticism of Moderates The methods used by the Moderates of passing resolutions and sending petitions were seen as inadequate They failed to realise that Britain was using India's resources to increase its wealth and British and Indian interests clashed with each other Their area of influence remained limited to urban educated Indians and their leadership comprised of lawyers, doctors, journalists, and teachers. . . o
Rise of Extremists . Nature of the British rule. . Anti-lndian policies: I. British Civil Service Act, 1877 Il. Royal Title Act, 1876 IlI. Vernacular Press Act, 1878 IV. Arms Act, 1878 V. National University Act, 1904 Inspired from "Young Turk Movement" in Turkey, 1905. USSR - Japanese war [won by Japan], influenced by this war. *
A new way of Freedom struggle by Extremists Boycott of foreign goods. . Imaginative use of traditional popular festivals and melas [ Tilak's Ganapathi and Shivaji festivals] Public meetings and processions. Programme of swadeshi or national education [National Council of education, Bengal Institute of technology] Swadeshi or indigenous enterprises [Textile mills, etc.] Impact in the cultural sphere [Inspiration from songs, paintings etc.] . .