Acid,Bases and Salts part 1 By Mahak Sharma
Properties of Acids: 1.Produce hydrogen ions [H+] in H20. 2. Sour taste. 3.Turn blue litmus red. 4.Act as electrolytes in Solution. 5.Neutralize solutions carrying hydroxide ions 6.React with several metals releasing Hydrogen gas. 7. React with carbonates releasing CO2 (g) 8. Destroy body tissues. 9.corrode metal surface quickly On the basis of origin, acids are classified as: a. Organic acids: Acids derived from living organisms like plants and animals. For example: citric acid is present in fruits, acetic acid present in vinegar, oxalic acid present in tomato, tartaric acid present in tamarind, lactic acid present in sour milk and curd. b. Mineral acids: They are also called inorganic acids. They are dangerous Example sulphuric acid (H2S04), hydrochloric acid (HCI) etc.
On the basis of their strength, acids are classified as: a. Strong acids: Completely dissociate into its ions in aqueous solutions. Example: Nitric acid (HNO3), sulphuric acid (H2SO04), hydrochloric acid (HCI). b. Weak acids: Weak acids are those acids which do not completely dissociate into its ions in aqueous solutions. For example: carbonic acid (H2CO), acetic acid (CH3COOH) On the basis of their concentration, acids are classified as: a. Dilute acids: Have a low concentration of acids in aqueous solutions. b. Concentrated acids: Have a high concentration of acids in aqueous solutions. On the basis of number of hydrogen ion, acids can be classified as Monoprotic acid: - Such type of acid produces one mole of H+ ions per mole of acid, e.g., HCI , HNO3 Diprotic acid :- They can produce two moles of H+ ions per mole of acid, e.g., H2S04. Triprotic acid -They produce three moles of H+ ions per mole of acid, e.g., H3PO4. Polyprotic :-They can produce more than three H+ ions per mole of acid.
Properties of Base: 1.Produce hydroxide ions [OH ] in H20. 2. Water soluble bases are called alkalies. 3. Bitter Taste 4. Turn Red Litmus blue. 5. Act as electrolytes in Solution. 6. Neutralize solutions containing H+ ions. 7. Have a slippery, soapy feel 8.Dissolve fatty material. On the basis of their strength, bases are classified as: a. Strong bases: Strong bases are those bases which completely dissociate into its ions in aqueous solutions. Example: sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH). b. Weak bases: Weak bases are those bases which do not completely dissociate into its ions in aqueous solutions. For example: ammonium hydroxide (NH40H) On the basis of their concentration, bases are classified as: a. Dilute bases: Have a low concentration of alkali in aqueous solutions. b. Concentrated bases: Have a high concentration of alkali in aqueous solutions.
Strength Of Acid or Base Solutions: A scale for measuring hydrogen ion concentration in a solution, called pH scale has been developed. The p in pH stands for potenz in German, meaning power. p potential or Power H Hydrogen ph 7 ph <7 Ph>7 Neutral solution Acidic solution Basic solution H30+- H30+ H30+>
Properties of salts: 1. Salts form by the combination of acid and base through neutralization reaction. 2. The acidic and basic nature of salts depends on the acid and base combined in neutralization reaction. 3.The most common salt is sodium chloride or table salt which forms by the combination of sodium hydroxide (base) and hydrochloric acid. 4. Other examples include Epsom salts (MgSO4) used in bath salts, ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) used as fertilizer, and baking soda (NaHCO3) used in cooking. 5.The pH of salts solution depends on the strength of acids and base combined in neutralization reaction. 6. Indicators :-Indicators are substances which indicate the acidic or basic nature of the solution by their colour change.
Indicators Colour change in acidic medium Colour change in Methyl orange pink Litmus solution red Phenolphthalein colourless basic medium orange blue pink