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Model answers for UPSC CSE Mains GS paper 1 - 2017: 7-9
Question 7: Mention the advantages of the cultivation of pulses because of which the year 2016 was declared as the International Year of Pulses by United Nations. Answer: The cultivation of pulses has various economic, social and ecological advantage:s as mentioned below: Economic advantages: 1.The pulses fetch good price in the market thus its cultivation gives farmers source of livelihood especially in India which is the largest producer and consumer of pulses. 2. Export of pulses helps in giving farmers better price, augmenting forex reserves and in reducing current account deficit of the country 3.Pulses help in improving soil fertility which in turn helps in more agricultural production. The farm residues can be used as animal fodder which will help dairy sector
Ecological advantages: 1. Pulse cultivation generally involves multiple cropping systems which enhance soil fertility, improve yields, and contribute to a more sustainable food system. 2. Pulses have a very low water footprint compared with other protein sources, and can be grown in very poor soils where other crops cannot be cultivated. 3. Pulses can play an important role in climate change adaptation, since they have a broad genetic diversity from which climate-resilient varieties can be selected and/or bred. Social advantages: 1. Pulses are a critical and inexpensive source of plant-based proteins, vitamins and minerals and helps in food and nutrition security especially of poor people. In India, use of pulses in Mid day Meal in schools has helped in checking malnutrition of children 2. Pulse cultivation helps farmers in their sustenance and upliftment in socio-econonic ladder 3. t also helps in reducing regional imbalance e.g. between pulse growing central India and cereal growing North western India (Punjab and Haryana).
Question 8: How does the cryosphere affect global climate? Answer: The cryosphere is that part of Earth which consists of snow, glaciers, ice caps and frozen ground. It is the second largest component of the climate system after the ocean. Cryosphere and Climate: 1. The cryosphere acts like a highly reflective blanket and protects Earth from getting too warm. 2. Snow and ice have high albedo or reflectivity and their presence or absence affects heating and cooling over the Earth's surface, influencing the entire planet's energy balance. 3. Changes in snow and ice cover affect air temperatures, sea levels, ocean currents, and storm patterns all over the world. E.g. melting of Arctic sea ice and fresh water influx can slow down or divert North Atlantic currents impacting other sea currents and temperatures around the globe 4. Melting permafrost releases carbon trapped within the soils into the atmosphere as methane, a powerful greenhouse gas.
Just as cryosphere influences climate, changes in climate can also impact cryosphere 1. Global warming and climate change have been responsible for cryospheric changes like reduction in Greenland and Antarctica ice sheet, melting of mountain and alpine glaciers and so on. 2. Through positive feedback, as atmosphere heats, ice melts, underlying surface absorbs more heat emitting terrestrial radiation consequently heating the atmosphere. In view of the threat posed on cryosphere due to global warming, the global community needs to work together for curbing fossil fuel emission, shifting towards non-fossil and renewable sources and avoiding exploitation and environmental degradation especially in polar areas. Cryosphere needs to be treated as a "Global Common"
Question 9: In the context of the diversity of India, can it be said that the regions form cultural units rather than the States? Give reasons with examples for your view point. Answer: India has a rich linguistic, racial, religious and caste diversity. The cultural diversity is reflected in different traditions, customs, language, rituals and art forms in different regions of India. It can be considered that regions rather than the states form cultural units as: 1. The four southern states have different languages i.e. Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada and Telugu but their individual culture has been derived from a common Dravidian culture. Therefore there are many similarities in the traditions, social customs, religious rituals and art forms of these states. E.g. carnatic music, Dravidian architecture, worship of Shiva and Vishnu in temples etc are common
2. Similarly the northeastern region show the dominance of tribal culture, prevalence of animism and naturism in hilly forested areas, forest dependent society and economy and socially cohesive units of people, though there is a great deal of linguistic diversity. 3. The northern region can be considered another cultural unit as the states within it has similar cultural traits i.e. hindi as common language, agriculture based society, dressing, food and other social habits, music and dance forms (Hindustani and bollywood music, natak and nautanki e.g ramleela) and so on. Thus except some states e.g. Goa which evolved as an altogether different cultural unit, most states can be grouped in different cultural regions.