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Model answers for UPSC CSE Mains GS paper 1 - 2017: 13-16
Question 13: Highlight the importance of the new objectives that got added to the vision of Indian independence since twenties of the last century. Answer: The third decade of the 20th century became a watershed in modern Indian history as new forces and objectives were incorporated into the national movement: 1. The Gandhian philosophy of Satyagraha had found its appeal with the masses vement had now become a truly mass-based movement. Gandhis ideas on Swaraj, Ram rajya, democracy, village economy took concrete shape in this period. 2. Marxist and socialist ideas spread and influenced young nationalists like Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Bose. They opposed Gandhian ideas and political programmes and advocated radical solutions for country's ills. 3. All over the country, students' leagues were formed, peasants started agitating against colonial laws (Rampa revolt, Bardoli Satyagraha) and trade unionism gained pace signifying the aspiration of every section for a free, equitable and just society
4. In the quest of social equality, various caste movements took place in this decade (Self respect movement, Justice Party, Satyashodhak Samaj etc) due to which social justice became one of the core objectives of Indian independence. 5. Another development was growth of revolutionary terrorism due to disillusionment of youth from Gandhian methods and influence of Communist ideas and Russian revolution. Though revolutionaries later turned towards socialism, their heroics inspired masses and later movements 6. Communal nationalism which was seen for the last time in Khilafat-Non cooperation movement when Hindus and Muslims put a joint front against the British gave way to extreme communalism which later gave rise to two-nation theory ultimately culminating into partition. The developments in the twenties further reverberated in next two decades due to growth, spread, and incorporation of above ideas and ideals which helped in intensification of freedom movement and in shaping the idea of independent India.
tfor variations in oceanic salinity multi-dimensional effects. Answer: Ocean salinity i.e. total content of dissolved salts in seawater varies both horizontally and vertically. Various reasons for its variation are: 1. Rate of evaporation: Evaporation is controlled by temperature, relative humidity and the instability or stability in the lower layers of the atmosphere. a. In the equatorial region, the cloudiness and high relative humidity retard evaporation. b. The subtropical regions record highest salinity as clear skies and descending air currents favour a very high rate of evaporation. Salinity gradually decreases towards the equator and the poles. c. Polar areas see extremely low evaporation rates thereby recording lowest salinity
2. Supply of clean and fresh water: Fresh water from rainfall (equatorial regions), melting of sea ice and icebergs (polar regions) and rivers dilute sea water and reduces its salinity 3. Prevailing winds: The trade winds transport warm and saline water from the eastern part of the oceans towards the western part. Upwelling of cooler and less saline water in eastern part reduces salinity there 4. Mixing through the movement of the ocean water: Tides, currents and waves cause continuous mixing of surface layers with sub-surface layers of the oceans. Warm ocean currents carry warm and more saline waters towards polar regions e.g movement of Gulf stream raises salinity in the northeast Atlantic ocean 5. Salinity generally increases with depth but vertical variation is different in different latitudes due to evaporation and influxlabsence of fresh water.
Variations in Oceanic salinity has multi-dimensional effects: 1. Salinity affects seawater density, which in turn governs ocean circulation and climate. Ocean currents move from regions of low salinity to high salinity which helps in temperature and salinity distribution. 2. Global warming and changes in global evaporation cycle and rainfall is altering ocean salinity which will alter its distributional pattern. Consequently, the ocean current circulation (conveyor belt) may get affected, in turn affecting wind patterns, various ocean phenomena and global climate. 3. Marine ecosystem is also greatly affected by salinity variations as marine flora and fauna are adapted to certain salinity conditions. Slight change in salinity and temperature causes death of fishes and marine organisms impacting fishery and coastal economy
Question 15: Petroleum refineries are not necessarily located nearer to crude oil producing areas, particularly in many of the developing countries. Explain its implications. Answer: Petroleum refineries are generally not located nearer to crude oil producing areas due to following reasons: 1. Industrial location theories suggest that industry can be set up near either the raw material source or the market to minimise the transport cost. Raw material i.e. crude oil was a less decisive factor for refinery location due to insignificant weight-loss post-refining and fear of refinery becoming redundant after exhaustion of oil well. Crude oil producing countries in Middle East and Africa suffered from wars (Arab-lsraeli, Iran-lraq wars), political instability (especially in Soutlh America) and uncertainty therefore MNCs were reluctant to set up refineries in these regions. 2.
3. There is very little domestic demand in these countries due to lack of industrial development and underdeveloped market. 4. Further the development of large tankers and ships, pipelines and transportation network facilitated bulk transportation of crude. Therefore refineries are located at either the port locations or big markets. USA, one of the biggest markets, developed refineries on East coast sourcing crude from Venezuela and West Asia; refinery clusters developed around Rotterdam and Thames for European market; similarly Jamnagar in India has one of the largest refineries.
Implications: 1. Due to lack of value addition and low crude oil price, the crude oil producing regions are at a disadvantage than those having refineries. Most of the crude oil producing countries have mainly oil-dependent economy. Market and price disruption, political instability, conflicts etc affect oil market and put immense pressure on these economies. Around Refinery locations, many auxiliary industries develop resulting into employment generation and industrial and regional development. Jamnagar is a perfect example. The transportation of crude oil to refinery locations also carries the risk of piracy (especially around Gulf of Aden and Somali coast) and oil spillage. Oil spills deeply harm the marine ecology 2. 3. 4.
Question 16: In what way can floods be converted into a sustainable source of irrigation and all-weather inland n Answer: Floods have always been considered a bane as they damage infrastructure, cause death of humans and animals, destroy agricultural produce and cripple economy of the inundated regions. But floods if managed well can emerge as a boon for irrigation and inland navigation. Floods are an annual phenomenon especially for Himalayan and some peninsular rivers. Proper management and utilization of floods for irrigation will involve: 1. Construction of storage reservoirs and dams: Storage reservoirs have been avigation in India? built as part of multi-purpose projects over several flood-prone rivers. These reservoirs provide water for irrigation, drinking, industries and power generation. Watershed management in the hilly catchments of river can not only improve irrigation and agriculture but also help in socio-economic development of the region. 2.