Roman Saini is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Model answers for UPSC CSE Mains GS paper 1 - 2017: 17 -20
Question 17. What characteristics can be assigned to monsoon climate that succeeds in feeding more than 50 percent of the world population residing in Monsoon Asia? Answer: If agriculture is considered as the "backbone of Asian economy" then monsoon can surely be its nervous system guiding former in its functioning Asian economies especially India and China are dependent on monsoon to feed their burgeoning population Monsoon, which is defined as seasonal reversal of wind pattern and atmospheric circulation, is a complex phenomenon which is a result of interaction and interlinkage of various processes i.e. shifting of convergence zone of trade winds, heating of Tibet plateau, generation of Tropical easterly jet stream etc.
However, its general characteristics can be enlisted as below: 1. The southwest monsoon occurs from June to September.The moisture-laden winds on reaching the southernmost point of the Indian Peninsula, due to its topography, become divided into two parts: the Arabiarn Sea Branch and the Bay of Bengal Branch. 2. Around the time of its arrival, called the 'Burst of Monsoon', normal rainfall 3. They are differ from pre-monsoon showers because of their increase in 4. Around September, with apparent shifting of sun towards south and cooling increases suddenly and continues regularly for several days. rainfall amount and regularity off of land mass, air pressure starts increasing over northern India, causing reversal of wind direction from land to Indian Ocean. This is known as the Northeast Monsoon or Retreating Monsoon.
5. Retreating monsoon picks up moisture from Bay of Bengal and pours it over Tamil Nadu and parts of Sri Lanka. Tamil Nadu receives 50-60% of rain from Northeast monsoon 6. The East Asian monsoon affects large parts of Indo-China, Philippines, China, Taiwan, Korea and Japan. It is characterised by a warm, rainy summer monsoor and a cold, dry winter monsoon. 7. There is a great variation in the intensity and frequency of rainfall year to year. Monsoon winds are affected by phenomena like El Nino and Indian Ocean Dipole. El nino generally weakens the monsoon winds causing drought like conditions in Monsoon Asia. 8. In recent times monsoon is becoming more and more unpredictable as temperature and precipitation patterns are changing due to global warming and climate change.
Question 18: The women's questions arose in modern India as a part of the 19th century social reform movement. What are the maior issues and debates concerning women in that period? Answer: Fight for betterment of status of women in society was the most important agenda of social reform movements of the19th century Hitherto women's questions were neither raised nor addressed. Women were accorded a low status in society, they were subjected to purdah, early marriage, sati etc, widows could not remarry; women were denied education, inheritance in property and social equality. Polygamy was prevalent among both Hindus and Muslims
The social reformers of this period basically appealed to the doctrines of individualism and equality and argued that true religion did not support an inferior status of women. They raised voices against degrading social customs like polygamy, child marriage etc, worked to establish educational facilities for women and tried to persuade government to enact favorable legislations for women: 1. Raja Ram Mohan Roy convinced government to declare the practice of sati illegal by the regulation of 1829. Brahmo samaj had the issue of widow remarriage high in its agenda. Due to efforts of pandit Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Hindu widows remarriage act, 1856 was passed. Vishnu Shastri pandit founded widows remarriage association. Jagannath Shankar Seth and Bhau Daji worked tirelessly for women education in Maharashtra. Relentless efforts of a Parsi reformer, B.M. Malabari exhorted the government to enact the Age of Consent act which forbade child marriage 2. 3. 4.
Question 19: Distinguish between religiousness/religiosity and communalism giving one example of how the former has got transformed into the latter in independent India. Answer: Religiousness/religiosity is defined as an individual's conviction, devotion, and veneration towards a divinity. Communalism on the other hand signifies differences between various religious groups and people from different community As long as religiosity influences individuals/groups to maintain social and religious harmony despite differences in religious and social interests, communalism is suppressed. The moment religiosity intensifies and interests of different religious groups clash, religiosity is transformed into communalism
This transformation is evident in independent India: 1. Ayodhya and ram mandir issue, Babri masjid and Godhra incidents- were a result of clash in religious interests of Hindu and Muslim groups. The brotherhood of Hindu and Muslims and the spirit of Kashmiriyat saw a serious blow due to extremist Islamic terrorism resulting into mass killing and large scale Exodus of Kashmiri pundits, communal violence and ever ongoing unrest in the valley. Religious minorities are often targeted by fundamentalist groups of other religions, e.g. Muslims are attacked for eating beef, Christian tribals discriminated for their religious rituals and practices. This transformation is also seen in political sphere in the form of political support for communal groups, significant role of fundamentalists in garnering votes and winning elections and so on 2. 3. 4.
Question 20: "The growth of cities as I.T. hubs has opened up new avenues of employment, but has also created new problems". Substantiate this statement with examples. Answer: With globalisation, technological development, and growth of tertiary sector especially services sector, cities have emerged as IT hubs. Cities around Delhi NCR, Bangalore, Hyderabad etc attract millions of people every year in search of employment opportunities. Though this rapid urbanization helps in development of various economic sectors, availability of labour for industries, and employment opportunity for masses, it has also given rise to certain problems. 1. The IT hubs around Delhi NCR e.g Gurgaon, Noida, Faridabad etc attract hoards of migrants from northern and eastern states. Due to inadequacy of housing, electricity, water, sanitation etc to cater to the needs of this huge population, slums develop, traffic congestion, pollution, crime etc become dally phenomena.
2. Due to emergence of conurbations around Delhi NCR, Bangalore, Hyderabad the tier 1 towns have been neglected and are in the decline. Ideally they should have been the developmental link between rural areas and metros. 3. Due to rapid growth of services sector in cities and decline of agriculture, rural-urban migration is on the rise. But the migrants are mostly unskilled/semi-skilled, therefore unfit for services sector. This results in under- and unemployment, excess availability of cheap labour and their exploitation. 4. Due to proliferation of cyber cities, manufacturing sector has not received the focus it deserved. Ideally India should have moved from an agricultural to industrial to service economy. Industrial revolution is still missing However, despite these problems, IT revolution in cities has made India an IT superpower and knowledge economy which is helping in harnessing our demographic dividend.