Roman Saini is teaching live on Unacademy Plus
Model answers for UPSC CSE Mains GS paper 1 - 2017: 10-12
Question 10. What are the two major legal initiatives by the State since Independence. addressing discrimination against Scheduled Tribes (STs)? Answer: STs have been facing discrimination for centuries due to their different culture, tradition, lifestyle and racial features. Indian constitution strived to give them rights and protection under various articles (Article 15(4), 29 etc) and schedules (5th and 6th), yet atrocities against STs and their alienation from mainstream society continued for decades after independence highlighting the need for legal and other initiatives Two major legal initiatives for protection of STs against discrimination are: 1. The Scheduled Castes and Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989: This act was brought in due to inadequacy of Prevention of Civil Rights Act, 1955 and Indian Penal Code to check discrimination and atrocities against SCs and STs. In line with Article 17 of Constitution (abolition of untouchability), this Act made discrimination against SCs/STsa criminal offence with stringent punishments and provided for relief and compensation to victims.
2. The Scheduled Tribe and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act 2006: It recognizes the ownership rights of tribes and other forest dwellers over land and other forest resources, denied to them for decades due to discriminatory colonial forest laws (Indian Forest Act, 1927) and practices. Apart from these laws, STs need education, health and food security, employment and development of infrastructure in tribal areas which will provide them a level playing field with other sections of the society
Question 11: The spirit of tolerance and love is not only an interesting feature of Indian society from very early times, but it is also playing an important part at the present. Elaborate. Answer: Tolerance and love have been intrinsic values of Indian society since ancient times. In ancient India: 1. Three main religions of India i.e. Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism developed at the same time, each teaching tolerance, love, sympathy and kindness for all. 2. There were many rulers who propagated these virtues to masses through edicts, inscriptions and royal missions. Ashoka stands tall among those rulers. Tolerance and love was at the core of his policy of Dhamma. 3. Despite the developments within Hinduism viz. proliferation of various castes, linguistic groups and religious sects conflicts within them had been at rare minimal.
In medieval India: 1. Despite the advent of Muslim rule and spread of Islam, religious conflicts were rarely observed. 2. Some of the Muslim rulers like Akbar gave patronage to artists and intellectuals of different faiths, had inter-religious marriage alliances, and ensured social harmony 3. During Bhakti and Sufi movement, the ballads of Meera Bai, Dohas of Kabir and preachings of Nanak and other saints conveyed love and tolerance as its core message In modern times these virtues are even more significant for current Indian society: 1.To prevent incidents like atrocities on dalits and minorities and religious and communal conflicts, 2. To curb religious fanaticism and intolerance towards progressive artists, political critics etc. 3. For ensuring the integrity of India and brotherhood among the masses which will augment nation's social capital
Question 12: Examine how the decline of traditional artisanal industry in colonial India crippled the rural economy. Answer: British policies had a deep impact on the traditional artisanal industry and rural economy. It completely changed their structure to meet the needs of the newly emergent industrialized economy of Britain. 1.The Indian handicrafts collapsed under the colonial rule due to the competition from machine made goods imported from Britain. Britain flooded the Indian markets with cheap products especially cotton textiles. 2. The railways facilitated the reach of these goods to remotest parts in India and the procurement of raw materials from these parts. 3. Following the policy of free trade the East India Company compelled the Indian craftsmen to sell their goods and services at meagre prices/wages.
Impact on rural economy: 1. Rural economy became a supplier of raw materials and importer of finished British goods. 2. Indian craftsman started abandoning their ancestral trade. It destroyed the self-sufficient village economy as the destruction of the traditional industries led to overcrowding in the agrarian sector 3. Agrarian sector was not much developed therefore could not absorb thee artisans causing mass unemployment and rural stress. Further due to overcrowding and easily available agricultural labour, the exploitation by Zamindars and land revenue officials increased 4. Many artisans and their families started migrating towards cities for work. They worked for long hours for days in dismal conditions in factories for meager wages.