Course :- On Your Request Lesson:- World Trade Organization 15 us Trade Partners Presented by Nithin Kunneparambil
Context Request from Student!! If you want another topic, do let me know! . Hence This lesson is dedicated to Rajani Rajani R Nair 4days ago Content rich presentation Sir.Plse give a session on WTO norms and issues with developing nations. Thank U 0 Reply
World Trade History . Used to happen from time immemorial. In IVC we have ships symbols, dockyards at Lothal, In South we have rich Sangam Trade, Roman trading with Indian explained in Periplus of Erythrean Sea, Mughal Era Trade Britain was the biggest proponent of Free Trade But the global trade took a beating after the GREAT But after WW II, slow easing and then an explotion in 80s and 90s.
Impediments to the world trade . Tariff:- Tax on Imports . Quota . Protectionism . Economic Nationalism Export Subsidies Dumping :- Desperate attempt to crash a market. Subsidies . Trade Surplus Trade Deficit
Countries advocating for free trade!! Britain USA China (1600-1930) ( (1930- 2010) (2010- ????)
History of the World Trade Discussions Subject Years 1947,49,51 ,56,61 1964-67 1973-79 Place Geneva, Annecy, lorquay, Geneva Kennedy Round Tokyo Round Countries Tariffs 23,13,38,26, Tariffs and Anti Dumping Tariffs, Non Tariff measure FrameWork agreements 26 62 102 103 Tariffs, non Tariffs, Rules, Services, IPR, Dispute settelments, Agriculture, WTO creation Etc 1986-94 Uruguay Round
Hence WTO was established After Uruguary Round in 1995 @ Marakkesh, Morocco. Unlike The GATT it has institutional structure Included many others like Intellectual Property . Strong Dispute Resolution Mechanism
Course :- On Your Request Lesson :- Details of WTO 15 us Trade Partners Presented by Nithin Kunneparambil
Free Trade Discrim Political Doctrine like MFN, National Treatment etc Non Economic Doctrine Fair Comp 2 Econ -Against Dumping O and Intellectual property protection Reform
Organization Structure of WTO Ministerial Conference Trade Policy Review Body General Dispute Settlement Body Council Committee on TD and TE Goods Service IP Law Council Council
Major Agreements of WTO . Agreements on Subsidies and Counterveiling measure GATS Positive List, Negative Lists, Mode 1, 2,3,4 TRIPS - Intellectual Property TRIMS Trade related Investment measures . Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) . Multi Fibre Arrangement and agreement on Textiles and Clothing. MFA Sanitary and Phyto Sanitary Measures
Subsidies and Counterveling (SCM) . Subsidies are quite dangerous as it impedes global trade . Four types :- Enterprise specificity, Industry Specificity,Regional . HENCE, Subsidies can be contingent upon Export Performance, Comes in conflict with national interests. Specificity, Prohibited Specificity or use of domestic content on imported goods. COUNTER VELING DUTIES and ANTI DUMPING DUTIES
TRIPS :- Trade related aspects of IP rights International agreement administered by World trade organization as per Uruguay Round in 1994 Huge lssues between Developed and developing nations. . Doha Round had an agreement favouring developing Nation .TRIMS:- Trade related Investment measures Certain investments measures can restrict and distort trade. . Like Local Content requirement. . Recently India and DCR regarding Solar Cells.
Domestic 9 Support AoA Export Subsidy Market Access 5
Amber Box and AMS Biggest contention. Reduction based on Aggregate measure of Support (By Govt to Farmers) - AMS It requires the member courtied to report their total AMS for period between 1986 and 1988. Reduce these figures by 20% over 6 years starting 1995, g to 13% over 10 years. LDC needn't do anything .Problem with 1986-1988
Others . Market acces :- Tariffs to be cut to allow free trade. Also Non Tariff barrier. Export Subsidy : - These can be in form of Subsidity on inputs of agriculture, making export xheaper or import duty remission etc. . Special Safe Guard Mechanism :- Allows countries to impose additional temporary safeguard duties in the event of abnormal surge
Others Multifibre arrangements and agreements on Textiles andd clothing - MFA. Removing Tariffs from Textile products. Sanitary and Phyto Sanitary Measures :- Basic rules for food safety and animal and plant Health Standard . Regulation based on Science. . Should not be arbitrarily or unjustifiably discriminate between countries where identical or similar conditions prevails
Course :- On Your Request Lesson:- WTO - Ministerial Rounds 15 us Trade Partners Presented by Nithin Kunneparambil
Developing Countries New clause :- TRIPS Vs Public Health. Change Language of TRIPS, IssUes of EverGreening of Patents, Compulsory Licensing etc. Agri Subsidies : - Developed countries agreed that they were the one who was giving more subsidies, so we will look into it Labour Issues :- Child Labour Issues raised by Developed countries. Now on no Labor issue in WTO, rather in ILO . For the LDC and Developing countries, esp for LDC Quota Free, Duty free access
Minor Ones Cancun Ministerial, 2003 - The Fight continues. Singapore issues back on the table. G20 Established in this ministerial Agenda. agenda . Generv talks Dropping the Singapore Issues from Doha . Potsdam - 2007:- Break down of Doha Development
Nairobi Ministerial 2015 Dilution of Doha Development Agenda, focus on Trade facilitation agreement. Most negotitation in Government procurement, E Commerce, Investment, Competition policy Before this, Many countries like India, China, Indonesia, Ecuador, Venezuela to preserve DDA, and Public Stockholding and SSM.
Outcomes of Niarobi Ministerial Commitement to eliminate subsidies from farms export Push for solutions public stock holding for food security purpose . SSM for developing countries and negotiate them in agricultural committee.. Made in LDC to promote trade Regional Trade agreement not a substitute to the WTO . Agreed that DDA views are different for different people.