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What is state?, Fundamental rights at a glance (in Hindi).
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Let's discuss the definition of state

Rahul Agrawal is teaching live on Unacademy Plus

Rahul Agrawal
The Ultimate Doubt Destroyer on Unacademy. One of the Top Educator on the Unacademy platform. Famous for Doubt destroyer series.

Unacademy user
sir uhh teach in a very best way.. m a big fan of ur teaching sir...may allah bless you always
after 60 or 65 year..sochenge k doubt to ayega hi jb log upsc ki taiyyari kr rahe honge..hahaha sir nice
why article 15 is not available for forengners?
all clear sir..👍😎😎

  2. Six Fundamental Rights are Right to freedom of Right to equality (Articles 14-18) religion (Articles 25 - 28) Right to freedom- (Articles 19-22) Cultural and educational rights Articles 29 -30) 05 Right against O Exploitation (Articles 23- 24) Right to constitutional remedies (Articles 32) R. AGRAWAL

  3. Right to equality (article 14 18) a) Equality before law and equal protection of b) Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of laws (Article 14) religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth c) Equality of opportunity in matters of public d) Abolition of untouchability and prohibition of e) Abolition of titles except military and (Article 15) employment (Article 16) its practice (Article 17) academic(Article 18) R. AGRAWAL

  4. Right to freedom (Article 19-22): a) Protection of six rights regarding freedoms of Speech and expression Assembly, Association, Movements Residence and Profession (Article 19) b) Protection in respect of conviction for offences (Article 20) Protection of life and personal liberty (Article 21) Rights to elementary education (Article 21A) Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases (Article 22) c) d) e) R. AGRAWAL

  5. Right against exploitation (Article 23-24): a) Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour (Article 23) b) Prohibition of employment of children in factories etc (Article 24) R. AGRAWAL

  6. Right to freedom of religion (Article25-28): a) Freedom of conscience and free profession , practice and propagation of religion (Article 25) b) Freedom to manage religious affairs (Article 26) c) Freedom from payment of taxes for promotion of any religion (Article 27) d) Freedom from attending religious instruction or worship in certain educational institution (Article 28) R. AGRAWAL

  7. Cultural and educational rights Article 29-30): a) Protection of language, script and culture of minorities (Article 29) b) Rights of minorities to establish and administer educational institution (Article 30) R. AGRAWAL

  8. Right to constitutional remedies (Article 32) Right to move the supreme court for the enforcement of fundamental rights including the writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, certiorari, VQuo warranto (Article 32) R. AGRAWAL

  9. Article 12 of the constitution has defined the term state and it includes a. Government+parliament of India Legislative Executive b. Government legislative of state:s Executive Legislative C. All local authorities Municipalities, panchayats, district board etc d. Other statutory & non statutory authorities (LIC, ONGC, SAIL, BHEL, GAIL, etc) R. AGRAWAL

  10. e. A private body/ agency working as an instrument of state "It is the actions of these agencies that can be challenged in the courts if they violate FR's" R. AGRAWAL

  11. From the Constitution 1) All laws in force in the territory of India immediately before the commencement of this Constitution, in so far as they are inconsistent with the provisions of this Part, shall, to the extent of such inconsistency, be void. 2) The State shall not make any law which takes away or abridges the rights conferred by this clause shall, to the extent of the contravention, be void. R. AGRAWAL

  12. ARTICLE 13 Expressively provides for judicial review Laws inconsistent with fundamental rights. All laws that are inconsistent with or in derogation of any fundamental rights shall be void. SC (32), HC (226) can declare a law unconstitutional/invalid on the above ground. R. AGRAWAL

  13. In keshavananda bharti case (1973), supreme court said that constitutional amendment can be challenged on the ground that it violates basic structure of the constitution R. AGRAWAL

  14. The Article 13 not only asserts the supremacy of the Indian Constitution but also makes way for judicial review. This legislation creates scope for reviewing pre-constitutional and existing laws. Although the legitimacy of judicial interventions in Constitutional matters has sparked debates, yet in most cases, the power of judicial review is evoked to protect and enforce the fundamental rights guaranteed in Part IIl of the Constitution. R. AGRAWAL

  15. Amendments to Article 13 The 24th amendment to the Indian Constitution was enacted by the then Indira Gandhi government in Novembe r 1971. The objective was to nullify the Supreme Court's ruling that had left the Parliament with no power to curtail the Fundamental Rights. Clause (4) was inserted in Article 13, which states: "Nothing in this article shall apply to any amendment of this Constitution made under article 368." This provision added more power to the Parliament when it comes to amending the Constitution. It brought Fundamental Rights within the purview of amendment procedure and judicial intervention or review of those amendments was prohibited. R. AGRAWAL

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