Food Processing -scope and significance, location factors, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management. Lesson 1
In this Lesson What is Food Processing
Food processing is the process of turning fresh foods into food products. Food processing includes many forms of processing foods Some of them are grinding, salting, drying, washing, chopping, pickling, pasteurising, freezing, fermenting, smoking, baking, packaging etc Food processing also includes adding components such as chemicals, . . . spices, vitamins, minerals to food This is done to extend shelf life or to improve the nutritional quality of the food .
Methods used in Food Processing Freezing - one of the most common technique used in modern world to preserve or process food both on commercial and domestic basis.lt helps to increase shelf life by preventing bacterial growth. Cold storage chains can be used for this. Drying - This is the oldest method to preserve food. Drying reduces the water content in the food product which prevents bacterial growth. . Preservation- This includes heating, boiling, oxidation, dehydration, osmotic inhibition, freezing, cold pasteurization which is done to destroy microorganisms
Smoking - Many foods such as meat, fish and others are processed, preserved and flavored by the use of smoke mostly in big smoke houses. This is done to enhance taste Sugaring- In this method fruits such as apples, peaches and plums are cooked with sugar until they are crystallized and then it is stored dry. It is used to make jams. Salting- Salt sucks out the moisture from the food, hence is used in food processing . Meat is the best example of the food processed by salting as nitrates are used very frequently to treat meat. * * .
Vacuum packs- the food is packed in airtight bags and bottles in a vacuum area. An airtight environment doesn't provide oxygen needed by germs to survive. Used to preserve nuts. Pickling- The food is cooked in spices, chemicals and oils like vinegar, ethanol, vegetable oil and many other types of oils. Pickling is very commonly seen in vegetables such as chillies, mangoes etc
Food Fortification According to WHO and FAO, Food Fortification is the practice of deliberately increasing the content of essential vitamins and minerals in a food This improves the nutritional quality of the food supply and provide a public health benefit. Food Enrichment is defined as "synonymous with fortification and refers to the addition of micronutrients to a food which are lost during processing" .
FSSAl recently released the draft Food Safety and Standards (Fortification of Foods) Regulations, 2016, to promote food fortification in the country It includes provisions for fortification of food articles like wheat flour, rice, milk, edible oil and salt with vitamins and minerals Ministry of Women and Child Development and Ministry of HRD have advised the use of double fortified salt (iron and iodine), wheat flour (with iron, folic acid and vitamin B-12) and edible oil with (vitamin A and D) under the ICDS and Mid-day Meal Scheme . e
Bio-fortification Biofortification is the process by which the nutritional quality of food crops is improved during plant breeding and growth. Biofortification differs from conventional fortification in that biofortification aims to increase nutrient levels in crops during plant growth rather than through manual means during processing of the crops. Example of biofortification include zinc-biofortification of wheat, rice, and maize . . .
India has evolved from a food-scarce to a food-surplus nation, especially after the Green Revolution. India currently ranks 2nd in terms of global food production next to China. The Food Processing Industry has been recognised as a 'sunrise industry' by the Government of India. It provides vital linkages between the two pillars of our economy - manufacturing and agriculture India's USD 600 Billion food processing industry is expected to grow three-fold by 2020. . . . e .
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