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Understand The Formation Of Himalayas (for UPSC CSE)
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The lesson talks about the Physiographic regions of India in detail: The Northern Mountains, The Peninsular Plateaus, Indo-Gangetic Plains, Thar Desert, The Coastal Plains and The Islands. Bhumika further elaborates on the Six Phases involved in the formation of Himalayas. Each of the phases is not only explained theoretically but also with the help of diagrams for a better and clearer comprehension.

Bhumika Saini
B Tech from MNIT, Jaipur. Appeared in CSE interview thrice. Loves teaching and playing badminton.

U
Unacademy user
nice explanation mam please upload next lesson
mam can u plz guide me for geography optional booklist ..hw 2 prepare..m clearing this prelims ..dont knw much for mains..
HI MAM THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR THESE GREAT LESIONS . MY DOUBT IS WHY INDIAN PLATE GOT SUBDUCTED UNDER TIBETAN PLATE ??????? THEY BOTH ARE CONTINENTAL PLATE SO THE DENSER AND OLDER ONE i.e EURASIAN PLATE SHOULD HAVE SUBDUCT UNDER INDIAN PLATE BUT ??????
Deepika Garg
2 years ago
Continental plate never subducted....It doesnt matter how dense and old it is :)
Abinash pradhan
2 years ago
THAT MEANS WHEN A CONTINENTAL AND OCEANIC PLATE COLLIDE OCEANIC PLATE SUBDUCTS ????????
CG
Yes Bro... As the density of oceanic plate is greater than Continental plate , it tends to subduct
Rupanzil Prince
2 years ago
continental plate is formed by soil whereas oceanic floor is composed of basaltic rocks which leads to increased density of the oceanic floor as compared to continental plate. that is why always in ocean- continent collision, it is always the oceanic plates which goes below.
AS
Arindam Saha
2 years ago
Is Himalaya range a part of North Central Highlands?
Neeraj Gupta
2 years ago
indian plate was moving towards urasiun plate and which are static plate so the causes of subduction of indian plate was its movement and density.
Neeraj Gupta
2 years ago
indian plate was moving towards urasiun plate and which are static plate so the causes of subduction of indian plate was its movement and density.
Dear Mam, can you plz explaain what is Crustal Doubling?? Thanks
tooo fast & monotonic mam!!! slow it down bcs many ppl who doesnt know basic geographic terms.........will not able to understand or follow ur lecture........some terms make it simple & good way like roman sir....with some wat interactive way......
Greater Himalayas made of - Dharvar Rocks (continental slope, oldest rock of gondwana peninsula). Lesser Himalayas made of - Dharwar rocks + Sedimentary rocks (continental shelf which contained sediments of Tethys sea and the continental shelf itself which was made of Dharvar rocks). Outer Himalayas made of - entirely the sediments of the rivers. Northern Plains - again made of sediments from the rivers, i.e. alluvial deposits of Himalayan rivers.
  1. Course: Physiographic regions of India Lesson: Formation of Himalayas PRESENTED BY BHUMIKA SAINI


  2. About me B Tech from MNIT, Jaipur. Appeared in CSE interview thrice. Three years of experience in teaching . Course fee: CONTRIBUTE Follow me on Unacademy: https://unacademy.in/user/BhumikaSaini


  3. Physiographic Regions of India The Northern Mountains The Peninsular Plateaus Indo Gangetic Plains Thar Desert The Coastal Plains The Islands


  4. The Northern Mountains


  5. 6 PHASES INVOLVED IN THE FORMATION OF HIMALAYAS PHASE 1 100 million years ago PHASE 21-71 million years ago PHASE 3 The Drass volcanic are PHASE 4 Greater Himalayas were raised PHASE 5 Rise of lesser Himalayas PHASE 6 Rise of the Shiwalik ranges


  6. PHASE 1 During Cretaceous Period, around 100 million years ago, the Indian plate was located b/w 10 S- 40 S, over the reunion hotspot The movement of the plate attained its mass velocity as it was closer to the equator (14cm/yr) and squeezing of the Tethys started towards the end of Paleocene


  7. .ate INDIA INDI


  8. PHASE 2 . Himalayan Orogenesis begins roughly about 71 million years ago and the plate with Gondwana continental piece drifted towards North East and the rigid Northwestern flangs composed of the Aravalli series collided with Eurasia SHIWALIKS HERE VINDHYA CRUSTAL DoUBLING


  9. RASS Vol Are TIBETAN PLAT VIN DHYAS Khondahti (EASTERN GHATS) (EASTEAN GHATS)


  10. PHASE 2 The line of collision b/w the Tibetan Plateau and the Indian Plate is called (Indus - Tsangpo Suture Zone) which is a compressional tectonic fault line. . As the plate began to sub duct, crustal doubling below Tibet raised them into a high plateau with a thickness of around 60km . Along the southern front of the ITSZ ( Indus-Tsangpo Suture Zone), the Murree Foredeep was formed and further south, the Shiwalik foredeep was created


  11. PHASE 3 During Oligocene the Drass volcanic area was formed and in the Tethys crust, a series of volcanic eruptions took place The plate has started anticlock rotation and Drass became the Pivotal Axis . Thus, in the western part, pressure and compression was gradually released but towards East, squeezing of Tethyan sediments has started which marks the beginning of rise of Tethyan Himalyas


  12. PHASE 4 . The rotation continued and greater compression created a major thrust in the sediments of Murree foredeep and greater Himalayas were raised about 30-35 million years ago ( Oligocene to Eocene) . The compressional thrust line is known as the Main Central Thrust (MCT)


  13. PHASE 5 . The sediments were being deposited in the Shiwalik foredeep and further movement in the plate resulted in the rise of lesser Himalayas during Miocene (15-20 MYA) MCT separates greater and lesser Himalayas and the compressional thrust line along which the lesser Himalayas were lifted is called Boundary Thrust/Fault (MBT of MBF)


  14. MCT Leonn Greatin Ham Shiwalik TETHYAN MBF Indlo BASIN


  15. (c) Tethyan Himalayas . Average height is 4000m . It is compressed with Greater Himalayas and absence of longitudinal valley between them manifests the high compressional forces which have sandwiched them . They have submarine, sedimentary, metamorphic rocks and Flysche material They represent initial upliftment in the Tethyan Geosyn or Murree foredeep


  16. (d) Greater Himalayas . Average height is 6000m Extends from Mt. Namcha Barwa to Nanga Parbat for 2500kms . The mightiest and the most majestic mountain range of the world, boasting of hundreds of peaks rising above 7000m . High relief, deep gorges, vertical slopes, symmetrical convexity and antecedent drainage mark the relief features . Due to iso-static adjustment and deep cutting of valleys, peaks are sharp and the valleys have escarps or free face


  17. (d) Greater Himalayas They are composed of metamorphic and sedimentary rocks in the upper layer from the Flysche material . The inner core has Paleozoic rock fragments mainly Granite, Gneiss, Amphibolites etc. Pper Pal i4c BATHOUm


  18. (d) Greater Himalayas . Core of the mountains has Batholith representing the intrusion of Magma ( Granitic Magma) . These mountains have asymmetrical folds due to high compression and they have fractured rocks in the eastern part because of the Indian Plate closed the Tethys like a door slamming shut


  19. (f) Lesser Himalayas . Average height is 3800m, length is about 2400kms, almost parallel to the Greater Himalayas but in the Western section, it is segmented into several parallel and transverse ranges . Parallel Ranges - Pir Panjal, Dhaula Dhar Transverse Ranges - Ratan Pir, Nagtiba, Mussourie Range Central part in Nepal is called the Mahabharatha range and the eastern part is called the Dafla hills, Mishmi hills, Miri hills, Abor which are closely compressed with the Shiwaliks and difficult to isolate from Shiwalik Ranges . Here the width of Himalayas are much less than in the western section and the structure is complex with fracture, fault, pulverization of rocks


  20. (h) Shiwaliks . Average Height is 800-1200m . They are partially folded and formed of river sediments deposited in the foredeep . They represent Hog back topography and 300m contour line demarcates their boundary with the Gangetic Plane .In the western section, it is called Shiwalik . In Nepal it is called Churiaghat hills and in Assam it is called Mishmi, Abor, Dafla etc (same as in lesser Himalayas) . Closer to Greater Himalayas in Nepal Disappear after River Ganges


  21. Thank You