. In 1945, Nations were in ruins WW2 over, and the world wanted peace. 51 countries gathered in San Francisco. The document were charter on 26th June1945 came into existence on 24th Oct 1945 thus creating a new organization the UN. the League of Nations : Its predecessor created by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 was disbanded in 1946
General Assembly Security Council ( Economic and Social Council l UNITED NATION AND ITS ORGANS Secretariat Specialized Agencies International Court of Justice Trusteeship Council
UN mission is to maintain 1. To maintain International peace and security, 2. Developing friendly relations among nations 3. To Promoting social progress, 4. Better living standards and human rights. HQ Official Languages - Arabic, English, French, Chinese, Spanish, Russian Members Secretary General Antonio Guterres (Portugal) New York. 193 (Latest Member South Sudan)
e UN budget e funded by: its member states through compulsory and voluntary contributions . Size of contribution in UN depends mainly on economic strength of member country. . UN Member countries can make voluntary contribution to 1.UNESCO 2.WHO 3.UNHCR: UN High Commissioner for Refugees. 4.UNICEF UN Children's Fund. e UN broadcast weekly Hindi News on pilot basis , UN also started Tweets in Hindi
1. UNITED NATION AND ITS ORGANS UN Organs 1.General Assembly. 2.Security Council (UNSC) 3.Economic and Social Council 4.Secretariat. 5.International Court of Justice. 6.Trusteeship Council. Note: some other Specialized Agencies
UN-General Assembly Main organ of UN Each member state have 1 vote. . Functions of General Assembly 1) Appoints : Secretary General of UN ( on the basis of recommendations given by Security Council) 2) Elects Non-Permanent members in Security Council 3) Elects Members for Social and Economic Council. 4) Security Council + General Assembly elects Judges to ICJ
5) Take Decision on important questions Peace and security, UN budget Admission, suspension and expulsion of members to various organs of UN( requires special majority) 6) Make recommendations on important matters related to UN note: except matters of peace and security because they comes under Security Council.
2. United Nation Security Council (UNSC) It maintains International peace and security. .UN-SC contains 15 members: 5 Permanent - US, UK, Russia, France and China. 10 members elected by the General Assembly for 2-year terms. Permanent members have veto power. . It has power to make binding decisions on member states. .All the members have one vote. . The presidency of the Security Council : rotates alphabetically each month.
. Decisions on procedural matters (Particular action taken to achieve certain target) Ex: Not require immediate action. Requirement: At least 9 Vote out of 15 members Decision on substantive matters (essential) require nine votes and the absence of negative vote by any of the 5 permanent members
G4 Nations - group of 4 countries who bids for permanent seats in UNSC. India, Japan, Brazil, Germany Coffee Club - This Group opposes expansion of permanent seats in UN Security Council Coffee Club - Italy(leader ),Spain,Canada , Pakistan, Mexico, Argentina, Malta, San Marino , South Korea, Colombia and Turkey.
Why reforms: if UN want to play a greater role in world affairs 2011 - Ban ki moon secretary general of UN appoints Atul khare of india to implement reforms & thus improving the efficiency of world body.(will lead CMT- Change Management Team) . Asia's inadequate representation Area 29.4 % of earth land area 60% (4.5 billion) population Solution: Add at least 4 seat from Asia
1) Change the permanent membership of UN-SC coz it reflects the power structure of 1945 world. whats about new emerging countries (G4 nations? 2) UN Secretariat Transparency reforms.: More transparent, accountable, efficient & including propsal of direct election of Secretary- General by the people as in presidential system. 3)UN should 4)Human rights reforms ex: libya,sudan,algeria,china,syria, raq be more democratic (World Government)
Members : 54 members (elected by the UN-GA for a 3 year term) Seats are allocated based on geographical representation. 11 of them are allotted to Asian states. . Each member of the council has 1 vote The president is elected for a 1 year term.
International Court of Justice It is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN). It settles legal disputes between member states and gives advisory opinions to authorized UN organs and specialized agencies. It hears cases related to war crimes, illegal state interference, ethnic cleansing, and other issues. Seat of ICJ Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands e only principal organ of UN which is outside of New York.
ICJ: 15 Judges elected by the UN-GA and UN-SC for 9 year term. All judges should be from different countries Re-election of judge allow . 15 judges i. 3 from Africa ii. 2 from Latin America and the Caribbean iii. 3 from Asia iv. 5 from Western Europe and other state:s v. 2 from Eastern Europe
Election of president & vice-president is done by secret ballot and they hold office for 3 years. The P5 members of the UNSC always have there own judge on the Court. exception China(1967-1985 they didn't send) The Court settles legal disputes between nations only and not between individuals, organizations and private enterprises in accordance with international law
It hears dispute only on request by states it can't deal by its own will Note: International Criminal Court (ICC) are not under the ICJ and it is independent from United Nations. . India won the case against Pakistan in ICJ ICJ has directed to Pakistan to stop the execution of Kulbhushan Jadhav.
GS faculty for UPSC, Electronics & communication engineer. M.A history (K.U) Diploma in Environmental Science(K.U)