(a) State the three basic values, universal in nature, in the 1. context of civil services and bring out their importance. (150 words) 2nd ARC has mentioned foundational values for civil services. However among the range of values of civil services some values are universal in nature. For instance i. Integrity Integrity is complete consonance of thought, speech and action. It is best risk management preparedness against internal and external pressure for doing corruption. ii. Courage Value of courage is prerequisite for other values like honesty, integrity, uprightness, empathy and compassion etc to take expression. It helps to go through adversity and remain dedicated to the service of nation. ii. Non-partisanship - credibility and legitimacy of bureaucracy is due to this non-partisan nature of bureaucracy.
iv. National interest-It is the highest duty of a civil servant to work for the interest of the nation. This will help to fulfill the constitutional promise of socio-economic justice to the citizens. v. Democracy-Value of democracy has to be followed in the letter and spirit to bring decentralization, transparency, and citizer centric governance. This gives legitimacy, credibility and acceptance to bureaucracy A civil servant must always express these basic and universal values and priorities them over other values using emotional intelligence.
(b) Distinguish between "Code of ethics" and "Code of conduct" with suitable examples. (150 words) "Code of conduct" is a set of procedural guidance to manage behaviour of a civil servant in a particular situation. According to 2nd ARC, the Code of Conduct is a starting point for ensuring good conduct. In India Central Services (Conduct) Rules, 1964 and All India Services Conduct rules 1968 acts as "code of conduct" for civil servants. "Code of conducet" provides means to the civil servant while the end values come from "code of ethics". "Code of ethics" reflects public expectations from a civil servant with reference to political impartiality, maintenance of highest ethical standards and accountability for actions. In India there is no official "code of ethics" for civil servants and the constitution acts as "code of ethics"
"Code of conduct" and "code of ethics" are aligned with each other and are designed to guide the behaviour of civil servants. As per conduct rules civil servants are directed to - a) Act with fairness and impartiality and not discriminate against anyone. This will help to achieve equality in country. b) Refrain from doing anything which is or may be contrary to any law, rules, regulations and established practices. This brings justice in society. c) Responsiveness to the public, particularly to the weaker section. This helps in achieving the constitutional value of socialism. Santhanam Committee observed that the deterioration in the standards of public life has to be arrested for development of
material resources and raising the standards of life. Both code of ethics and code of conduct are important in this regard
2. (a) What is meant by public interest? What are the principles and procedures to be followed by the civil servants in public interest? (150 words) Public interest is serving the need and aspiration of people at large. t is working for people's right as promised by the constitution. Giving primacy to public interest also helps to resolve ethical dilemma in governance. Principles upholding public interest which must be followed by civil servants are as follows i. Constitutional principles-provided under Preamble, Fundamental rights and Directive Principle of State Policy to develop a just society, reduce inequality, gender justice, environmental conservation among others.
ii. Code of Ethics - that has end values of Justice, equality, fraternity etc. ii. Gandhian principles - of 'Sarvodaya' (Welfare of all) iv. Other_ethicalprinciples like 'common good' approach, 'Utilitarianism' in governance There are various source of guidance for procedure to be followed by civil servants- i. Code of conduct - of civil services laid down the procedure to be followed. It has mean values like objectivity, impartiality, non- partisanship etc which must be followed. Rules, regulations, policies and Legislations-important acts on public interest like Prevention of corruption act, Money laundering act,
ii. Procedure laid down by the courts In absence of legislation, civil servants must follow the procedure laid down by courts. Eg SIT on Black money, ban on sale of alcohol on highways, Sabrimala judgement etc iv. International conventions-and guidance provided there in, eg- Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention. Civil servants must be trained to work in public interest because fulfilment of public interest is the obligation of the government under the 'Social Contract
(b) "The Right to Information Act is not all about citizens' empowerment alone; it essentially redefines the concept of accountability. Discuss. (150 words) RTI is a powerful tool that strengthens democracy and promotes good governance by enhancing the citizen's ability to participate in the process. Earlier citizens were treated as subject and were living under era of opaqueness. Now citizens are empowered to seek information, ask question from administration and take informed decision. However RTI act has not only empowered citizens but also redefined the concept of accountability by improving both answerability and enforcement.
i. In the Pre RTI era executive accountability was to the parliament. howeter a executive. ii. RTI act has provision of self-declaration of information. This has increased the spirit of accountability. ii. RTI requests are filed by public with ease. Simplification of processes for filing of RTI Requests and Appeals to central Government Authorities which included setting up of a call centre and portal for filing of RTI requests in Gol offices iv. RTI act has clearly defined the time period under which information is to be provided and in case of non fulfilment the procedure of grievance redressal and punishment to the PIO This has helped in proper enforcement of RTI. The components designed to achieve this were:
3. (a) What is meant by conflict of interest? Illustrate with examples, the difference between the actual and potential conflicts of interest. (150 words) Conflict of interest is said to arise when official duties, public interest, and personal interest are taking priority one above the other. Conflict of interest creates dilemma in the decision making process. To maintain objectivity and probity, decisions must not be taken while operating under conflict of interest. It must be resolves first. Actual conflict of interest exist is there already is competing personal, professional and public interest. For instance
An engineer from IIT Kharagpur with over 4 years of teaching experience in both IIT JEE & UPSC CSE.