THE HUMAN IMMUNE SYSTEM
THE SITE SCENARIO IN BONE MARROW LYMPHO-CYTO-PRECURSORS (STEM CELLS) T CELLS (T=Thymus) B CELLS ( B=Bone Marrow) *Memory Cells *Memory cells *Plasma Cells *Killer Cells CELL MEDIATED *Suppressor Cells *Helper T cells IMMUNITY IMMUNITY **Form Antibodies ANTI BODY MED.
All these T and B cells are formed in Bone Marrow. The difference is this that the T cells migrate to Thymus and their further development takes there.
CELL MEDIATED IMMUNE SYSCTEM 1. HELPER T CELLS (Th): and B cells to divide. * Stimulate killer T cells * Produce Lympho-kines (to attract phagocytes) . 2. KILLER T CELLS (Tk): * Destroyers * Secrete Lympho-toxins and Lympho-kines 3. Suppressor T Cells (Ts): *Suppress functions of Tc and Th cells and also plasma cells * To protect action against own body. . 4. Memory T cells *To retain memory of encounters.
AMIS ANTI BODY MEDIATED IMMUNE SYSTEM vunabte portion Basic Unit: Immuno Globulin (g) Components Contain two heavy chains bond igne chian Contain two light chains Bonded via Disulphide bridges ora Also known as Humoral Immunity. Image Credits NCERT Textbook In accordance with https://epathshala.nic.in/license/
WORKING OF lo 1. AGGLUTINITION : Antibody attach to the surface of pathogen. 2. OPSONISATION : Coating of bacterium with opsonin (IgG and lgM) to facilitate phagocytosis. 3. NEUTRALISATION : Neutralize the toxin of bacterium.
Types of IMMUNO GLOBULINS A. IGA : *10% *Protects mucus membrane & from inhaled pathogens. *In colostrum, saliva, sweat, tears etc. IGD : *1-3% *Development of immune responses. *Activates B-lymphocytes IGM : *5-10% *OLDEST, LARGEST AND HEAVIEST *Pentameric Structure. *First antibody generated in response to antigens *Strong Agglutinition
IGG : *75-80% *Most Abundant CAN PASS PLACENTA *PROVIDES IMMUNE POWER TO EMBRYO *Lightest.
ATTACK ON AN INVADER (PATHOGEN) VASODILATION Dilation of blood vessels ADHESION : Leucocytes adhere to the surface A. DIAPEDESIS : Leucocytes move into Extra Cellular Fluid(ECF) CHEMOTAXIS : Movement towards bacteria in ECF PHAGOCYTOSIS i. Adherence : Attachment of infective agent to membrane of phagocyte. ii. Ingestion (Engulfing of pathogen) iii. Intracellular killing of pathogen (via hydrolytes) NON PHAGOCYTIC RESPONSE: Make pores on pathogen, then water enters in pathogen, hence cell bursts and dies.
post-caillaryvenule endothelial cells increased blood low increased adhesion endothelial permeability diapedesis chemotactic factors Image Credits NCERT Textbook In accordance with https://epathshala.nic.in/license/
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