ADVENT OF EUROPEANS () 09Z OS 7
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ADVENT OF EUROPEANS () 09Z OS 7
THE QUEST FOR AND DISCOVERY OF A SEA ROUTET INDIA After the decline of the Roman Empire in the seventh century, the Arabs had established their domination in Egypt and Persia. Direct contact between the Europeans and India declined and accessibility to the Indian commodities like spices, calicoes, silk, and various precious stones that were greatly in demand was affected 1453 Constantino ple fell to the Ottomarn Fifteenth-century Europe was gripped by the spirit of the Renaissance with its call for exploration The iand routes to India were also controlled by the Arabs Europe made great advances in the art of ship- building and navigation Establishmen t of Arabs
Bucharest Sochi ajevo Constanta Serbia Bapha Black Sea ofia ontenegrox Bat Kosovo Bulgaria Burgas Tirana Macedonia Rize Plovdiv Samsun Trabzon Edir (FYROM) hessaloniki Albania Istanbul Bursa Ankara Sivas Eski ehir Greece Turkey Patras Diyarbakur izmir Athens Aenva Kayser Ba Konya 3D Gaziantep
There was an eagerness all over Europe for adventurous sea voyages to reach the unknown corners of the East. The economic development of many regions of Europe was also progressing rapidly with expansion of land under cultivation. The introduction of an improved plough, scientific crop management such as crop rotation, and increased supply of meat (which called for spices for cooking as well as preservation). Prosperity also grew and with it the demand for oriental luxury goods also increased
. Venice and Genoa which had earlier prospered through trade in oriental goods were too small to take on the mighty Ottoman T rks or to take up major exploration on their own. . The north Europeans were ready to aid Portugal and Spain with money and men, even as the Genoese were ready to provide ships and technical knowledge. Portugal had assumed the leadership in Christendom's resistance to Islam even as it had taken on itself the spirit of exploration that had characterised the Genoese.
. The idea of finding an ocean route to India had become an obsession for . He was keen to find a way to circumvent the Muslim domination of the . Pope Nicholas V gave Prince Henry a bull in 1454, conferring on him the Prince Henry of Portugal, who was nicknamed the 'Navigator'. eastern Med right to navigate the "sea to the distant shores of the Orient", more specifically "as far as India" in an attempt to fight Islamic influence and spread the Christian faithiterranean and all the routes that connected India to Europe. However, Prince Henry died before his dream became a reality
In 1497, under the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494), the rulers of Portugal and Spain divided the non-Christian world between them by an imaginary line in the Atlantic, some 1,300 miles west of the Cape Verde Islands Under the treaty, Portugal could claim and occupy everything to the east of the line while Spain could claim everything to the west. . The situation was thus prepared for the Portuguese incursions into the waters around India.
It was in 1487 that the Portuguese navigator, Bartholomew Dias, rounded the Cape of Good Hope in Africa and sailed up the eastern coast . He was well convinced that the long sought after sea route to India had been found. But it was only ten years later that an expedition of Portuguese ships headed out to India (in 1497) and arrived in India in slightly less than eleven months' time, in May 1498
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