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Question for Pre and Main UPSC CSE
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In this lesson we discused question for UPSC CSE pre and main exam in detail.

Piyush Kumar Parashari
M.A. in ECONOMICS,POLITICAL SCIENCE CS executive student and IIT JAM qualified in phycics AIR 512, appeared in IES,IAS,IFoS exams

U
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kya ye Dec 2018 k liy h kya ??
  1. INDIAN HERITAGE SITES BY PIYUSH PARASHARI


  2. Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus), Maharashtra Chattrapati Shivaji Terminus, formerly known as the Victoria Terminus is the headquarters of Central Railway in Mumbai. It was built by Frederick William Stevens with the inspiration from Victorian ltalianate Gothic Revival architecture and traditional Mughal buildings between the years 1878-1888, and gave Bombay the face of being the International Mercantile Port of India. In some ways, the plan of the terminal though it has Italian and Victorian era elements, reminds us of the Indian palace architecture, and is a good example of the blending of an indigenous and western style of art. Due to several reasons such as pollution, traffic, construction work etc, there have been reports of damages to this site.


  3. Red Fort Complex, New Delhi Situated in the centre of the historic city of New Delhi, the Red Fort was built by emperor Shah Jahan when he shifted his capital from Agra to Delhi, or what was known as Shahjahanabad at that time. The fort became the political hub of the Mughals. Under Shah Jahan, Mughal art and architecture reached it's zenith, and the Red Fort is the perfect example of that. One can see the blending of Indo-lslamic, Timurid, Hindu and Persian forms of architecture in several facets of the Red Fort.lt's made up of red sand stone and houses several other smaller buildings such as the private pavallions, the Diwan-i-aam, the Diwan-i- khas. The Red Fort is one of the most popular UNESO World Heritage Sites in India and is managed directly by the Archaeological Survey of India


  4. Po Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park, Gujarat The Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, located in the Panchmahal district of the Indian state of Gujarat. Centred around the city of Champaner or Muhammadabad built by Sultan Mahmud Begada of Gujarat, it's a very significant place historically and culturally. This place is the only complete unchanged Islamic pre-Mughal city. Also deemed to be of mythological significance, a larger part of Champaner-Pavagarh is still unexcavated. It includes 11 different types of heritage monuments that are- Mosques, Temples, Tombs, Gateways, Fortresses and walls, Palaces and Pavilion, Helical Wells, Custom house and Greneries all belonging to 16th century. The park also houses some of the ancient Chalcolithic Indian Sites, from the Stone Age era.


  5. Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park, Gujarat The Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, located in the Panchmahal district of the Indian state of Gujarat. Centred around the city of Champaner or Muhammadabad built by Sultan Mahmud Begada of Gujarat, it's a very significant place historically and culturally. This place is the only complete unchanged Islamic pre-Mughal city. Also deemed to be of mythological significance, a larger part of Champaner-Pavagarh is still unexcavated. It includes 11 different types of heritage monuments that are- Mosques, Temples, Tombs, Gateways, Fortresses and walls, Palaces and Pavilion, Helical Wells, Custom house and Greneries all belonging to 16th century. The park also houses some of the ancient Chalcolithic Indian Sites, from the Stone Age era.


  6. Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus), Maharashtra Chattrapati Shivaji Terminus, formerly known as the Victoria Terminus is the headquarters of Central Railway in Mumbai. It was built by Frederick William Stevens with the inspiration from Victorian Italianate Gothic Revival architecture and traditional Mughal buildings between the years 1878-1888, and gave Bombay the face of being the International Mercantile Port of India. In some ways, the plan of the terminal though it has Italian and Victorian era elements, reminds us of the Indian palace architecture, and is a good example of the blending of an indigenous and western style of art. Due to several reasons such as pollution, traffic, construction work etc, there have been reports of damages to this site.


  7. Red Fort Complex, New Delhi Situated in the centre of the historic city of New Delhi, the Red Fort was built by emperor Shah Jahan when he shifted his capital from Agra to Delhi, or what was known as Shahjahanabad at that time. The fort became the political hub of the Mughals. Under Shah Jahan, Mughal art and architecture reached it's zenith, and the Red Fort is the perfect example of that. One can see the blending of Indo-lslamic, Timurid, Hindu and Persian forms of architecture in several facets of the Red Fort.lt's made up of red sand stone and houses several other smaller buildings such as the private pavallions, the Diwan-i-aam, the Diwan-i- khas. The Red Fort is one of the most popular UNESO World Heritage Sites in India and is managed directly by the Archaeological Survey of India.


  8. Jantar Mantar, Jaipur, Rajasthan The Jantar Mantar is an astronomical observatory built in 18th century Rajasthan. It is an astronomical observatory which was built by the Rajput King Sawai Jai Singh of Rajasthan in 1738 CE. It is a collection of 19 astronomical instruments including world's largest stone Sundial. All these instruments are man-made. The observatory consists of instruments which were used to calculate celestial coordinate systems, the horizon-zenith local system, the equatorial system and the ecliptic system. One of India's best preserved observatories, this monument is a great example of the scientific as well as the cultural heritage of India.


  9. Western Ghats The Western Ghats or the Sahyadri mountain ranges lies along the western coast of Indian Peninsula. The range runs north to south along the western edge of Deccan Plateau. It constitutes sever national parks, reserve forests and wildlife sanctuaries in Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. The hills cover 160000 square kilometer area with a length of 1600 kilometer, width of 100 kilometer and a heights of 1200 meters. It has an extremely high bio-diversity and ranks among the top 8 in World's Biological Hot Spot Locations. The forests along the Western Ghats are home to about 325 species of flora and fauna, which included endangered, rare and critically endangered species of plants and animals.


  10. Hill Forts of Rajasthan Within the State of Rajasthan, six extensive and majestic hill forts together reflect the elaborate, fortified seats of power of Rajput princely states that flourished between the 8th and 18th centuries and their relative political independence. The extensive fortifications up to 20 kilometres in circumference optimized various kinds of hill terrain, specifically the river at Gagron, the dense forests at Ranthambore, and the desert at Jaisalmer, and exhibit an important phase in the development of an architectural typology based on established 'traditional Indian principles'. The vocabulary of architectural forms and of ornaments shares much common ground with other regional styles, such as Sultanate and Mughal architecture.


  11. Rani Ki Vav, Patan, Gujarat Built in the 3rd millennium BC in the memory of the kings, its an explicit example of fine Ancient Indian architecture. Constructed during the time of the Solanki dynasty, legend says that it was constructed in the honour and memory of Bhimdev 1, the son of the founder of the dynasty, by his widowed queen Udayamati. It was recently declared as a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2014, owing to it's architectural marvel and splendour. Rani-ki-vav is well known for its Stepped Corridors, Sculptures and Stone Carvings in the Well. Most of the sculptures in the well are devoted to Lord Vishnu in the form of his 10 avatars, which signify his return to the world


  12. Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka, Madhya Pradesh Declared a Unesco World Heritage Site in 2003, the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka is the place were the earliest traces of human life on Indian subcontinent was discovered. They're located at the foothills of the Vindhaya Mountains in the Deccan Plateau and are an archaeological site for the Mesolithic period (more than 100,000 years ago) and thus indicates the beginning of the South Asian Stone Age. The rock shelters comprise a group of 5 rocks which were discovered only in 1957, and are renowned for the Mesolithic era carvings and paintings. These paintings are instrumental in telling us about the life and activities of the hunter gatherers who preceded us, and shows the coming together of art form and landscape, during that age


  13. Khangchendzonga National Park, Sikkim Khangchendzonga National Park also Kanchenjunga Biosphere Reserve is a National Park and a Biosphere reserve located in Sikkim, India. It was inscribed to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites list on July 17, 2016, becoming the first 'Mixed Heritage' site of India. The park gets its name from the mountain Kanchenjunga which is 8586 metres tall. The term Kanchenjunga literally means the Abode of Gods consisting of Five Treasure Houses'. These five treasure houses imply the five lofty peaks of Mt Kanchenjunga including Mt Narshing, Mt Pandim, Mt Siniolchu, Mt Simvo and Mt Kabru. The first three peaks are the most beautiful amongst all of them and stand tall. The varied elevation has given a perfect base to the rich collection of flora and fauna in the Park.


  14. Mountain Railways of India The mountain railways of India comprise of the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, the Nilgiri Mountairn Railway and the Kalka-Shimla Railway and are a part of the World Heritage Sites in India. North Bengal is one of the most beautiful scenic temptations on Earth. Fun Toy Train, beautiful Tea Plantations and long tunnels or the Tiger Hills, all will cater to your delight. Built during the 19th and early 20th century, these engineering marvels were a bold and ingenuous solution to the problem of connectivity in the rugged mountains and a gem in the heritage of India. Besides they pass thru the most beautiful terrain and you would love to take a romantic and fun ride here.


  15. Qutb Minar and its Monuments, New Delhi One of the most popular World Heritage Sites in India, the Qutub Minar was built in 1193 by the first Muslim ruler of Delhi, Qutub-ud-din Aibak of the Mamluk Dynasty, after defeat of Delhi's last Hindu Kingdom. The Qutub Minar is one of the several other buildings located within the Qutub complex, and it occupies the centre stage mainly due to it's height. It is 73 meter tall and has a diameter of 15 m at the base and 2.5 m at the top.. It was built by Aibak to honor the famous Sufi saint Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki. Near to Qutub Minar is the Quwwat- ul-Islam mosque, which was built on the ruins of the Lal Kot of the previous Hindu kingdom and is also known to be one of the firts mosques in the country


  16. Great Living Chola Temples, Tamil Nadu These temples were built in Southern Part of India during the rule of Chola empire. The Brihadisvara Temple, the Temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram and the Airavatesvara Temple are the most important of all of these temples. The temple at Gangaikondacholapuram was patronized by Rajendera 1 and was dedicated to Lord Shiva. And the the Airavatesvara temple was built during the time of Rajaraja II, and is aesthetically different from the other two. These temples stand testimony to the architectural splendour and beauty of Chola art, architecture and sculpture. Hence, these 3 temples reflect the ancient culture and heritage of the Tamilians and form an inseparable part of their ancient history


  17. 4 Khajuraho Group of Monuments, Madhya Pradesh Located in Madhya Pradesh, Khajurao is arn important UNESCO World Heritage site in India. Khajuraho is unique heritage site which is famous for a group of Hindu and Jain Temples situated 175 km south east of Jhansi. They are well known for their Nagara style symbolism and erotic figures and sculptures. These sensuous stone carvings of human and animal form in erotic poses are very aesthetically portrayed and stand testimony to the rich cultural heritage of India. It consists of total 85 Temples spread across an area of 20 square kilometers. The Kandariya temple is the most prominent of all of these temples in the Khajurao complex.


  18. Group of Monuments at Hampi, Karnataka Hampi is a UNESCO World Heritage site located in the Northern part of Karnataka. It lies within the ruins of the ancient, prosperous kingdom of Vijayanagar. The ruins at Hampi are a collection of heritage sites depicting the fine Dravidian style of art and Architecture. The most important heritage monument in this site is the Virupaksha Temple, which continues to be a very important religious centre for the Hindus. There are several other monuments which are a part of this heritage site, Together, they are collectively known as the 'Group of Monuments at Hampi'.


  19. Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, Rajasthan Keoladeo National Park, located in the State of Rajasthan, is an important wintering ground of Palaearctic migratory waterfowl and is renowned for its large congregation of non-migratory resident breeding birds. A green wildlife oasis situated within a populated human-dominated landscape, some 375 bird species and a diverse array of other life forms have been recorded in this mosaic of grasslands, woodlands, woodland swamps and wetlands of just 2,873 ha. This 'Bird Paradise' was developed in a natural depression wetland that was managed as a duck shooting reserve at the end of the 19th century


  20. Sun Temple, Konark, Odisha Sun Temple, Konark - Located in the Puri district of the Orissa state, the Konark (or Konarak) Sun Temple is constructed in the shape of the chariot of the Sun God, Surya or Arka. The chariot has 24 wheels and is pulled by 6 horses. The Sun Temple of Konark was constructed by King Narasimhadeva I of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty in the 13th century CE. One of the most famous temples of India, The Konark Surya Mandir or sun temple was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India in 1984 under categories I, III and VI


  21. Agra Fort, Uttar Pradesh The Agra Fort is a UNESCO World Heritage site located in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. The Red Fort Complex or the Lal Qila was built in the 16th century CE towards the north of Delhi by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, intended to be the main fortification of his new capital city, Shahjahanabad. Red Fort stands aloof among other pieces of Mughal architecture as an unmatched blend of the Persian, the Timuri and the Indian architectural styles. Until the exile of the last Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar by the British in 1857, the Red Fort complex continued to serve as the capital citadel of the Mughal rulers.