Punctuation and spellings By- srishti srivastava
There are fourteen punctuation marks commonly used in English grammar. They are the period, question mark, exclamation point, comma, semicolon, colon, dash, hyphen, parentheses, brackets, braces, apostrophe, quotation marks, and ellipsis.
When do we use semicolons? What are the rules for commas? When do we use apostrophes and quotation marks?
Commas show your reader that there is a pause in the sentence they are reading. It seems as if commas have more punctuation rules than any other form of punctuation
Rules for Commas After Introductory Words and Clauses Quietly, shireen ran past the sleeping man. (adverbs) . Ow, . If I find your son, Ill call you. (subordinate adverb clauses)
Commas Between Multiple Modifiers (Adjectives & Adverbs) I love this warm, fuzzy, pink teddybear! It was a bright, sunny day.
Commas With Numbers When a number is over 999, use commas to separate the numbers. This dress will cost us Rs.5,465. I paid $3,500 for my new boat. . The house is $600,000.
Commas With Lists When you list three or more things, use commas between the words. . I would like pancakes, apples, and cookies. . Are we having mutton, chicken, or fish for dinner?
Commas With Dates and Addresses November 7, 2015 I live in Gracious Street,England. Send the package to 5154 Campbell Street,Mumbai,India..
Commas With Quotations When you are quoting someone's exact speech, you must use quotation marks and a comma. My sister exclaimed, "You came home!" . "l missed you," I said. .
Commas Joining Independent Clauses When you join two independent clauses, use a comma and a coordinating coniunction. When you have two independent clauses joined only by a comma, it's called a comma splice. You should avoid comma splices. . . I love cats, but I also love dogs. Can you come, or should I go? My sister had a ballet performance, and my brother had an orchestra concert.
Commas Setting Off Nonrestrictive (Nonessential) Elements Nonrestrictive elements add information to the sentence, but they are not essential to the meaning of the sentence. We could remove them from the sentence, and the sentence would still make sense My sister, a French teacher, lived in France for two years.
semicolons Use these to separate two complete sentences that are closely related. . I went to the play; my cousin was the main actor. The semicolon (;) is used to connect independent clauses. It shows a closer relationship between the clauses than a period would show. John was hurt; he knew she only said it to upset him. .
example Lists There are three ways that I love to relax: reading magazines, practicing yoga, and taking baths. . Introducing Single ltems You can use a colon to introduce a single thing when you want to emphasize it. After shopping for eight hours, I finally found them: the perfect pair of jeans. .
Dash and the Hyphen Two other common punctuation marks are the dash and hyphen. These marks are often confused with each other due to their appearance but they are very different. A hyphen is used to join two or more words together into a compound term and is not separated by spaces. For example, part-time, back-to-back, well-known.
A dash is used to separate words into statements. There are two common types of dashes: en dash and em dash En dash: Slightly wider than a hyphen, the en dash is a symbol (-) that is used in writing or printing to indicate a range or connections and differentiations, such as 1880-1945 or Princeton-New York trains. Em dash: Twice as long as the en dash, the em dash can be used in place of a comma, parenthesis, or colon to enhance readability or emphasize the conclusion of a sentence. For example, She gave him her answer_ No! . . Whether you put spaces around the em dash or not IS, again, a style choice. Just be consistent.
Periods , full stop Ending Sentences Use these to end declarative sentences and imperative sentences. The sun is shining today. Open the door.
Abbreviations (shortened forms of words) I spoke with Sgt. Johnson about the troops. .
The punctuation rules for question marks are very simple. In fact, there is really only one rule! 1. Ending Sentences These end interrogative sentences. This kind of sentence asks a question. Any time you ask a question, end the sentence with a question mark. Should I use a question mark on this sentence? (Yes!) .
The punctuation rules for apostrophes are some of the most commonly misused punctuation rules ever. The rules are pretty simple. There are only three times when you should use apostrophes.
To Form Strange Plurals Use apostrophes to make lowercase letters plural. Dot the i's and cross the t's
Here are two times you should use quotation marks. 1. Quoting Exact Speech Whenever you quote someone's exact speech, you must use quotation marks. . The police officer said, "Where are you going?" . "I'm going to work," I replied.
Titles Use quotation marks to show the titles of magazine articles, chapters, short stories, essays, poems, and songs. . "Columbus" is a great poem. . Our homework tonight is to read Chapter 6, "The Lovely Rose Garden." . Sydney sang "The Star Spangled Banner" at the football game.
Braces () are used to contain two or more lines of text or listed items to show that they are considered as a unit. They are not commonplace in most writing, but can be seen in computer programming to show what should be contained within the same lines. They can also be used in mathematical expressions. For example, 211+123-3x.
by (preposition):. It's commonly used to mean "next to" or "near" when describing a location. It can also indicate who created something. My favorite autobiography is "The Autobiography of Malcolm X." It's written by Malcolm X and Alex Haley. bye (exclamation): This is a shortening of "goodbye." I've got to go now, so bye! See you on Sunday!
cell, sell cell (noun): A cell is a small area or room, usually in a prison. A cell can also be one of the smallest divisions of a living organism The prisoner spent 10 years in his cell. to sell (verb): To exchange a product or service for money. Like "buy," it was probably one of the first verbs you learned. We would like to sell our car, but we don't think we'd get very much money for it.
dew, do, due dew (noun): Dew is the name for small drops of water that accumulate (gather) on plants and other objects outside during the night. outside during the night.ate When I went outside early in the morning, the dew on the grass made my shoes wet.
to do (verb): This common verb is used to indicate an action. It can also be an auxiliary verb. What do you usually do on Friday nights? due (adjective): This is used to indicate the deadline (final day) that something can happen. It's also used to indicate when a baby will probably be born My friend is pregnant. Her baby is due in October.
pair, pear pair (noun): A set of two things that go together. Most of these examples of homophone sets are pairs of words, but some are groups of three or four words. pear (noun): A delicious fruit. I wanted to buy pears for my fruit salad, but they only had winter pears. I don't like winter pears very much because they're hard, so I got peaches instead.
marry, merry to marry (verb): The action when two people have a wedding; also called "to get married." My grandpa told me to be sure to marry a good woman. merry (adjective): A synonym for "happy," but less common in modern English. Mostly used in phrases like "Merry Christmas!" I don't like to go shopping in December because the song "We Wish You a Merry Christmas" always gets stuck in my head.
wait, weight to wait (verb): This means to stay in one place or to anticipate something. It was snowing a lot, so the bus came late. I had to wait in the cold for 20 minutes. weight (noun): This word indicates how heavy something is. Every year around Christmas, many people gain a lot of weight because they eat lots of food but don't exercise.
son (noun): A male child. Grandma and grandpa had four sons and three daughters. sun (noun): The star at the center of our solar system. It's that big yellow thing in the sky during the day. Don't look directly at the sun, or you'll damage your eyes. You may even lose your eyesight!
knight (noun): A man given a special honor (or rank) by a king or queen. Their title is usually "Sir." One popular English legend talks about King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table. night (noun): The period of time when it's dark and most people sleep I prefer to work at night, since it's quieter and not as hot. I can concentrate better.
hour, our hour (noun): A period of time that lasts 60 minutes. It takes about six hours to drive from San Francisco to Los Angeles. our (pronoun): This is the possessive pronoun form of "we." We should study for our exams.
fairy (noun): A mythical creature that can often do magic. There is a fairy named Tinkerbell in the story "Peter Pan." ferry (noun): A ferry is a boat that moves passengers and vehicles across water. It's used for long distances or places where there are no bridges. The ferry in Costa Rica is really hot and incredibly badly organized. At least the trip only takes an hour.
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