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Overview of the Course
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the lesson explains the contents of the course and how it can be useful in preparation for UPSC CSE prelims for mains gs1 and also for optional geography.

P L Bhargavi
A speck of universe, trying to save her instincts and intuitions from the robotic chores. scored 150 in geography optional II

Unacademy user
If something is amended by the parliament in constitution then it should be constitutionally? it means after amendment it mentioned in the constitution. Am I wrong? Please clarify when to say constitutionally and when not.. It's very much confusing at least for me.
2 years ago
Constitutionally means anything mentioned before 26 Jan 1950 .Constitution without amendments, if 1st ,2nd amendments so on ,you don't say constitutionally
Rahul Dabas
2 years ago
In the following 3 statements, which are correct? 1. fundamental duties are mentioned in the constitution 2. Consitutionally, fundamental duties are mentioned 3. Originally, fundamental duties were mentioned in the constitution
Beena Rathore
2 years ago
1 and 2 correct
Muhammad Ali
a year ago
does constitutionally mean that it should be before 26 jan 1950? i think if it is in constitution it is constitutionally.. else not constitutionally.. i may be wrong.. but do you have any supporting link or source which tells so?
  1. Climatology of India Presented by Bhargavi Vardhan

  2. About me Biotechnology graduate A mom to 4 year old Have been lecturer in biotechnology Upsc aspirant Scored 150+ in geography optional I, 402 in GS in 2017 Learning enthusiast, love to learn languages, A home baker, hobby artist Please follow me on this link Please do rate review and recommend the courses if you like them and recommend the courses

  3. Introduction India is home to an extraordinary variety of climatic regions, ranging from tropical in the south to temperate and alpine in the Himalayan north, where elevated regions receive sustained winter snowfall The nation's climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert. The Himalayas act as a barrier to the frigid katabatic winds flowing down from Central Asia keeping the bulk of the Indian subcontinent warmer than most locations at similar latitudes. . As such, land areas in the north of the country have a continental climate with severe summer conditions that alternates with cold winters when temperatures plunge to freezing point.

  4. Seasons in India

  5. Season Characteristics Note Winter or cold weather season clear skies, fine weather, light The cold air mass northerly winds, low humidity and temperatures, and large daytime variations of temperature extending from the Siberian region, during these months. The mean air temperatures increase from north to south up to 17 N, the decrease being sharp as one moves northwards in the north- western parts of the country. . The mean temperatures vary from 14 C to 27 C during January The rains during this season generally occur over the western Himalayas, the extreme north-eastern parts, Tamil Nadu and Kerala

  6. Floods

  7. Floods are caused by the inadequate capacity within the banks of the rivers to contain the high flows brought down from the upper catchment due to heavy rainfall In coastal areas, they are caused by cyclones and typhoons. Other causes include backing up of waters in tributaries at their outfalls into the main river often with synchronization of floods in them; ice jams or landslides blocking stream courses resulting in the backwater overflowing river banks. Flash flood occurs in areas near foot hills. However the root cause of flood is excessive rainfall which occurs mainly in the monsoon months of July to September. Floods are also sometimes caused by Glacial Lake Outburst called Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) which can be catastrophic for people living immediately downstream and can cause serious damage to infrastructure and the economy

  8. The flood problem in India is mostly confined to the states located in the Indo Gangetic plains, northeast India and occasionally in the rivers of Central India Heavy rainfall, inadequate capacity of rivers to carry the high flood discharge, inadequate drainage to carry away the rainwater quickly to Streams/ Rivers, storm surges, Man made factors such as failure of dams and other control works like reservoirs are the main causes of floods Ice jams or landslides blocking streams, debris flow, back water, and cyclones also cause floods. Excessive rainfall combined with inadequate carrying capacity of streams resulting in over spilling of banks is the cause for flooding in majority of cases


  10. Thank you Please do rate review and recommend the course if you like it