THE NATIONALIST MOVEMENT:GANDHIAN ERA The Nationalist Movement In India And The Role Of Mahatma Gandhi And Non-Violence. Employing nonviolent nationalist movements as his weapon, Mahatma Gandhi stirred Indian men and women to "fight" for independence without shedding blood.
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ORIGIN OF NATIONALISM The rise of Nationalism is reflected in the spirit of Renaissance in Europe when freedom from religious restrictions led to the enhancement of national identity. This expression of Nationalism was furthered by the French Revolution. The politicachanges resulted in the passing of sovereignty from the hands of an absolute monarch to the French citizens, who had the power to constitute the nation and shape its destiny. The watchwords of the French Revolution Liberty, Equality and Fraternity - inspired the whole world. Many other revolutions like the American Revolution, the Russian Revolution, etc. (about which you have already read in Lesson 3) also strengthened the idea of Nationalism. In this lesson, you will read about the rise of Nationalism in India which emerged in the 19th Century after the revolt of 1857.
EMERGENCE OF INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS (1885) The Indian National Congress was founded by Allan Octavian Hume in 1885. Hume was a retired Civil Service Officer. He saw a growing political consciousness among the Indians and wanted to give it a safe, constitutional outlet so that their resentment would not develop into popular agitation against the British rule in India. He was supported in this scheme by the Viceroy, Lord Dufferin, and by a group of eminent Indians. Womesh Chandra Banerjee of Calcutta was elected as the first President. The Indian National Congress represented an urge of the politically conscious Indians to set up a national organization to work for their betterment. Its leaders had complete faith in the Britislh Government and in its sense of justice. They believed that if they would place their grievances before the government reasonably, the British would certainly try to rectify them. Among the liberal leaders, the most prominent were Firoz Shah Mehta, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Dada Bhai ji, Ras Behari Bose, Badruddin Tayabji, etc. From 1885 to 1905, the Indian National Congress had a very narrow social base. Its influence was confined to the urban educated Indians.
PARTITION OF BENGAL (1905) What do you think happened in1905? Curzon announced the partition of Bengal. The reason for partition was given as an attemptto improve administration. But the real aim was to 'Divide and Rule. The partition was done in order to create a separate State for Muslims and so introduce the poison of communalism in the country. However the Indians viewed the partition as an attempt by the British to disrupt the growing national movement in Bengal and divide the Hindus and Muslims of the region. Widespread agitation ensued in the streets and in the press. People of different parts of India opposed the partition of Bengal all over the country. This opposition was carried on by organized meetings, processions and demonstrations etc. Hindus and Muslims tied 'rakhi' on each other's hands to show theirunity and their protest. ACTIVITY 8.1 (Do you know what 'rakhi'is? Write a paragragraph on it. Connect
THE RISE OF RADICAL NATIONALISTS The mild policies of the Moderates in the Congress led to the rise of passionate, radical nationalists, who came to be called the 'Garam Dal'. Thus the first phase of the nationalist movement came to an end with government reaction against the Congress on the one hand and a split in the Congress in 1907 on the other. That is why the period after 1905 till 1918 can be referred to as the 'Era of Passionate Nationalists or Garam Dal'. Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal (Lal-Bal-Pal) were important leaders of this Radical group. When the Moderates were in the forefront of the action, they had maintained a low profile but now they swung into action. Their entry marked the beginning of a new trend and a new face in India's struggle for freedom. According to them, the Moderates had failed to define India's olitical goals and the methods adopted by them were mild and ineffective. esides, the Moderates remained confined to the upper, landed class and failed to enlist mass support as a basis for negotiating with the British.
The Garam Dal realized that the British were out to exploit Indians, destroy their self-sufficiency and drain India of its wealth. They felt that Indians should now become free of foreign rule and govern themselves. This group, instead of making petitions to the government, believed in organizing mass protests, criticizing government policies, boycotting foreign goods and use of Swadeshi (home-made) goods etc. They did not elieve in depending on the mercy of the Britishers, but believed that freedom was their right. Bal Gangadhar Tilak gave a slogan Freedom is our birth right and we must have it. In 1916 the two groups were again united with the efforts of Mrs. Annie Besant. o you remember reading about her in an earlier lesson? She started working for
the Home rule movement in 1914. She was convinced that India should be granted Self-Government. In 1916, Muslim League and Congress also came to an understanding with each other and signed the Lucknow Pact. Later, Mahatma Gandhi, Jawahar Lal Nehru, Subhash Chandra Bose became the eminent figures of Indian National Congress, who led the freedom movement of India forward
FORMATION OF THE MUSLIM LEAGUE (1906) As the radical movement grew stronger the British began to look for waysand means to break the unity among Indian. They tried to do this through the partition of Bengal and by sowing the seed of communalism among Indian people. They motivated Muslims to form a permanent political association of their own. In December 906, during the Muhammadan Educational conference in Dacca, Nawab Salim Ullah Khan raised the idea of establishing a Central Muhammadan Association to take care of Muslim interests. Accordingly, on 30th December, 1906, the All India Muslim League was founded. Another prominent person, Aga Khan was chosen as its president. The main objective of the league was to protect and advance the rights of Muslims in India and represent their needs to the government. By encouraging the issue of separate electorates, the government sowed the seed of communalism and separatism among Indians. The formation of the Muslim League is considered to be the first fruit of the British master strategy of Divide and Rule' Mohammad Ali Jinnah later joined the League. 8.6 M RLEY-MINTO REFORMS
MORLEY-MINTO REFORMS (1909) Do you remember reading about the Indian Councils Act 1892, which enlarged the legislature by adding members to the Central Legislative Assembly? The Council Act of 1909 was an extension of the 1892 reforms, also known as the Morley-Minto Reforms after the names of the then Secretary of State (Lord Morley) and the then Viceroy (Lord Minto). It increased the members of the Legislative Assembly from sixteen to sixty. A few non-elected members were also added. Though the members of the Legislative Council were increased, they had no real powers. They remained mainly advisory in character. They could not stop any bills from being passed. Nor did they have any power over the budget.
The Nationalist Movements in India were organized as mass movements emphasizing and raising questions concerning the interests of the people of India. In most of these movements, people were themselves encouraged to take action. Due to several factors these movements failed to win independence for India. However, they did promote a sense of nationalism among the people of the country. The failure of these movements affected many people as they withdrew from Government offices, schools, factories and services. Though they did manage to get a few concessions such as those won by the Salt March in 1930, they did not help India much from the point of view of their objective
The British made another calculated move to sow the seed of communalism in Indian politics by introducing separate electorates for the Muslims. This meant that from the constituencies dominated by Muslims only Muslim candidates could be elected. Hindus could only vote for Hindus, and Muslims could only vote for Muslims. Many leaders protested against this communal electorate policy of the British to Divide and Rule
In the First World War, Britain and its allied groups won the war. During the War, Muslims supported the government with an understanding that the sacred places of Ottoman Empire would be in the hands of Khalipha. But after the War, a new treaty was imposed on the Muslims who took it as an insult to the Khalipha. Shoukat Ali and Mohammad Ali started World War, the British government also passed another Act known as the The Act authorized the British government to arrest and imprison any person without trial in a court of law. It also banned Indians from keeping any type of weapon. This angered the Sikhs, who kept a kripan (a type of small sword) with them as part of their religion. The Indians considered this Act as an insult to them. On 13th Apr l, 1919 on the occasion of Baisakhi fair protest against this Act. Suddenly, a British officer, General Dyer, entered into the park with his troops and ordered them to open fire on the crowd with their machine guns This was done without any warning to the people. The Jalianwalla Bagh gates were closed and the people men, women and children could not escape to safety. Within a few minutes about a thousand persons were killed. The massacre aroused the fury of the ndian people. Showing his anger and pain, the famous philosopher-poet Rabindra Nath Tagore returned his Knighthood to the British government. Turkish Sultan and Ottoman Empire was divided . This angered the the Khilafat Movement against the British government. After the end of the First Rowlatt Act. at Jallianwalla Bagh Amritsar), people had gathered for peaceful
and allowed detention of political prisoners without any trial for two years. Gandhiji wanted non violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws. The government paid no heed to it. Gandhiji therefore, started his non-cooperation movement in August 1920, in which he appealed to the people not to cooperate with the British government. At this time, the Khilafat movement started by the Muslims and the Noncooperation movement led by Gandhi merged into one common confrontation against the British Government. For this Gandhi laid down an elaborate programme- (1) Surrenderof titles and honorary offices as well as resignation from nominated seats in local bodies; (2) refusal to attend official and non-official functions; (3) gradual withdrawal of children from officially controlled schools and colleges; (4) gradual boycott of British courts by lawyers and litigants; (5) refusal on the art of the military, clerical and labouring classes to offer themselves as recruits for service in esopotamia; (6) boycott of elections to the legislative council by candidates and voters; (7) boycott of foreign goods and National schools and colleges. Later, it was supplemented with a constructive programme which had three principal features: (1) promotion of Swadeshi, particularly hand- inning and weaving; (2) Removal of untouchability among Hindus; (3) promotion of Hindu uslim unity. Due to this appeal of Gandhiji, an unusual frenzy overtook the country A large number of people, dropping their differences, took part in this movement. Over two-thirds of the voters abstained from taking part in the elections to the Council, held in November, 1920. Thousands of students and teachers left their schools and colleges and new Indian educational centers were started by them. Lawyers like Moti Lal.
In 1922, Gandhiji suspended his non-cooperation movement after Chauri Chaura incident, even when the movement of Gandhi ji. Imagine that you were a journalist at that time and you got an assignment to interview Mahatma Gandhi just after this movement. Write an imaginary dialogue of our discussions with Mahatma Gandhi asking him to justify his decision. C. R. Das t was on its peak. Many people criticized the decision otilal Nehru and other like minded persons hatched out a novel plan of non- cooperation from within the reformed councils. They formed the Swaraj Party on January 01, 1923. C. R. Das was the president of the party and Motilal Nehru the Secretary. Thee party was described as 'a party within the Congress' and not a rival organization. But, they could neither end nor amend the Act of 1919. In 1927, British government appointed a commission under the chairmanship of Sir John Simon. The Commission was appointed to study the reforms of 1919 and suggest further measures for Constitutional reforms. The Commission had no Indian member in it. The Indians boycotted this all White commission. Therefore, when this Commission arrived in India, it faced protests all over the country. Black flags were shown, demonstrations and Hartals took place all over the country and the cry of 'Simon go back' was heard. These demonstrators were lathi charged assaulted by the police at a number of places by the British Police. Lala Lajpat Rai was severely
Meanwhile, Indian political leaders were busy in drafting a Constitution. This is known as Nehru Report which formed the outline of the Constitution. Among its important recommendations were a declaration of rights, a parliamentary system of government, adult franchise and an independent judiciary with a supreme court at its head. Most of its recommendations formed the basis of the Constitution of independent India which was adopted more tharn twentyyears later. At the historicannual session of Congress in Lahore in 1929, the Congress committeditself to a demand for PurnaSwaraj or complete independence and issued a call to the country to celebrate 26th January as Purna-Swaraj Day. On January 26, 1930, the Congress celebrated 'Independence Day. On the same day in 1950 the Constitution of Independent India was adopted, making India a sovereign, democraticsocialist republic. Since then January 26th is celebrated as Republic Day
Dandi March Around the same time, the government made a new law. They imposed taxes on the use of salt. This was opposed by the people, as salt was the basic need of the people. But, no attention was paid to demands of the eople. During March-April, 1930, Gandhi marched from is Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi on the Gujarat coast for the purpose of raiding the Government Salt. The violation of salt law was his first challenge to the government. It was a peaceful march. Gandhi committed a technical breach of the Salt Law on 6th April, 1930, when he picked up the scattered sea salt from the coast to break this Law. In this movement farmers, traders and
women took part in large numbers. The government arrested him in May 1930 and put him in Yervada jail at Poona. The campaign had a significant effect on British attitude toward Indian independence. Gandhi-Irwin Pact in 1931 was one of its examples. Gandhiji also went to London in 1931 and participated in the second round table conference as the sole representative of the Congress but no settlement could be arrived at. Although, Gandhi's arrest removed him from the active leadershipof the movement, this civil disobedience continued. Special stress was laid on boycott of foreign goods particularly clothes. The ivil Disobedience Movement, though a failure, was a vital phase in the struggle for the freedom. It promoted unity among Indians of different regions under the Congress banner. It provided an opportunity to recruit younger people and educate them for positions of trust and organization as also in provincial administration, which was captured in the responsibility in the 37 elections. It gave wide publicity to political ideas and methods throughout 19 the country and generated political awareness even in remote villages.
1 National Movement during the Second World War When the Second World War broke out in 1939, the Congress attitude was one of sympathy, though it refused unconditional cooperation. The Congress demanded that "India must be declared an independent union, and present application must be given to this status to the largest possible extent. The British did not agree and as a result all the ministries resigned in protest in 1939. A demand for Provisional National Government at the Centre was made at the instance of C. Rajagopalachari in 1940. It was turned down by the Viceroy Lord Linlithgow. In October, 1940 was launched the Civil Disobedience Campaign. Acharya Vinoba Bhave was the first to offer individual Satyagraha
Partition and Independence of India Differences soon arose between the Congress and the Muslim League concerning the powers of the Constituent Assembly. The League rejected the Cabinet Mission Plan in the middle of 1946. In September 1946, the Congress formed the government at the Centre. The League refused to be a part to it. Muslim League celebrated this day as a 'Direct Action Day' on 16th August 1946 to attain Pakistan. The conflict
Nizamiyat, the local nawabs of Oudh and Bengal and other smaller powers. Each was a strong regional power influenced by its religious and ethnic identity. However, the East India Company ultimately emerged as the predominant power. One of the results of the social economic and political changes instituted in the country throughout the greater part of 18th century was the growth of the Indian middle class. Although from different backgrounds and different parts of India, this middle class and its varied political leaderships contributed to a growing "Indian" identit! The realisation and refinement of this concept of national identity fed a rising tide of nationalism in India in the last decades of the 19th century
Nonviolent resistance (NVR or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving goals such as social change through symbolic protests, civil disobedien economic or political noncooperation, satyagraha or other methods, while being nonviolent. Satyagraha satya: "truth", graha: "insistence" or "holding firmly to") or holding onto truth or truth force - is a particular form of nonviolentresistance or civil resistance. Someone who practices satyagraha is a satyagrahi The term satyagraha was coined and developed by Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948).He deployed satyagraha in the Indian independence movement and also during his earlier struggles in South Africa for Indian rights. Satyagraha theory influenced Martin Luther King J's and James Bevel's campaigns during the Civil Rights Movement in the United States, and many other social justice and similar movements
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