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Lesson 1 Kurukshetra Summary (in Hindi)
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Bharatmala Pariyojana

Dr Swasti Sinha
Dental Surgeon | Learner | Educator | Bibliophile | Ambivert

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  2. CREATING EFFICIENT TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE FOR INCLUSIVE GROWTH An efficient transport infrastructure is required to provide essential linkage between resources centres of production and market as well as for promoting balanced regional growth. 1 Growth in India had long been hampered by the lack of good infrastructure. On the transport front, movement of goods and people was slow and inefficient, penetration of the transport network in remote areas was inadequate. 1 The slow movement of traffic was leading to valuable loss of time and heavy pollution Precious lives were being lost in rampant accidents. The extensive network of rivers with their tremendous navigational potential remained unutilized

  3. THE HIGHWAYS REVOLUTION National Highways are now being built at the rate of 27 kms per day as opposed to just 12 km per on 2011. l Prime Minister recently inaugurated two world class expressways in NCT Delhi- the Eastern Peripheral Expressway and Phase I of Delhi Meerut Expressway. Many more such expressways are coming up in different parts of the country to reduce travel time for goods and people and bring down pollution 1 Bridges and tunnels are being built in many places to shortern distance, and bring the hitherto remote and inaccessible areas within easy reach. The Bhupen Hazarika Bridge over River Brahmaputra in Assam, the Chennai-Nashri Tunnel in Jammu & Kashmir and the Kota Bridge over Chambal are just a few examples

  4. The Road Transport & Highways Ministry launched its ambitious programme Bharatmala O The programme aims to enhance the efficiency of road transport by building 50 Economic Corridors, Feeder and Inter Corridors, Border, Coastal and Port Roads and Expressways 0 It will provide improved connectivity to areas of economic activity, places of religious and tourist interest, border areas, backward and tribal areas, coastal areas and trade routes with neighbouring countries. D With the completion of Bharatmala, all 550 districts in the country will get connected to national highways as against 300 districts at present.

  5. 35 Multimodal Logistics Parks will also be built. These parks will have go-downs, cold storage and other services required for efficient transport of goods. l They will also have access to multi-modal transport including roadways, railways, waterways and airways wherever feasible. 0 Bharatmala will be a major driver for economic growth in the country. It is estimated that more than 35 crore man-days of employment will be generated under Phase-l of the programme

  6. PROMOTING GREEN FUEL Government is promoting the use of clean fuels like ethanol methanol, bio diesel, Bio- CNG and electricity. Besides bringing down pollution, these fuels, produced indigenously from agriculture waste, plants like bamboo, non-edible oilseeds, or municipal waste, will help reduce the country's huge import burden. Nagpur city is running buses on 100 percent bio ethanol and Bio CNG derived from methane from sewage water.

  7. SAFETY ON HIGHWAYS India sadly has the highest number of road accident fatalities in the world 0 779 accident black spots have been identified across the country and are being rectified, safety features and being incorporated in road designs at DPR state and safety audit of roads are being carried out. Improved vehicular safety standards have been notified. l The Motor Vehicle (Amendment) Bill has been passed by the Lok Sabha. The Bill addresses road safety issues by providing for stiffer penalties, making fitness certification of vehicles and issue of drivers licenses transparent by computerizing it, statutory provisions for protection of Good Samaritans and recognition of IT enabled enforcement system

  8. PORTS AS ENGINES OF GROWTH: Government launched the Sagarmala programme, and declared 111 waterways as National Waterways in order to harness the potential of our seas and rivers. Sagarmala envisages industrializing ports areas so that they become engines of growth. D There is a thrust on the setting up of Special Economic Zones (SEZs) and 12 Coastal Economic Zones around Major Ports. In addition, there are projects for modernizing ports so that they become more efficient and profitable, enhancing connectivity of ports with the hinterland through road, rail and waterways and preparing the local population with necessary skills and infrastructure for the job opportunities that will open up. l Coastal shipping and Cruise Tourism are also poised for a big leap ahead

  9. An MoU with Bangladesh for coastal movement of goods has been signed. This will open up economic opportunities in the North Eastern states. 0 It is expected that Sagarmala will save Rs 3500-Rs 40,000 as logistics cost annually and will boost exports by about USD 110 billion. The programme is also expected to generate more than one crore direct and indirect jobs in the maritime sector, the factories that come up in port areas, the service industry, fisheries, tourism and many

  10. MAKING WATER TRANSPORT A REALITY: Government has declared 111 waterways as National Waterways and are developing them for navigation. Water transport is cheaper than road and rail transport and also less polluting. Transportation of goods over waterways will reduce logistics cost of our products, making them more competitive. D Work is already under implementation over 10 waterways including Ganga and Brahmaputra, Barak, Krishna, Mahanadi, Amba, Narmada etc. The World Bank aided, Jal Marg Vikas project on Ganga is progressing at tremendous speed.

  11. I Measure undertaken to combat vehicular pollution: Emission norms for Tractors and Construction Equipment, vehicles have been notified for low Sulphur fuel, to be implemented from 01st October, 2020. The Electric vehicles are being a big push by the Ministry. India's first multi modal Electric Vehicle passenger transport project was launched in Nagpur with integrated solution of buses, taxis and E- Ricksahws.

  12. BHARATMALA PARIYOJANA A STEPPING STONE TOWARDS'NEW ariyojana is a new umbrella programme for the highways sector that focuses on optimizing efficiency of freight and passenger movement across the country by bridging critical infrastructure gaps through effective interventions like development of Economic Corridors, Inter corridors and Feeder Routes, National Corridor Efficiency Improvement, Border and International connectivity roads, Coastal and Port connectivity roads and Green-field express ways

  13. BHARATMALA PROJECT CATEGORY: Economic Corridor Feeder Route or Inter Corridor O National Corridor Efficiency Improvement D Border Road and International Connectivity l Port Connectivity and Coastal Road Green Field Expressway

  14. Invigorating India's villages with the Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission 0 To create 300 such Rurban growth clusters over the next 3 years, which will be ODF, green and also create agro based and thematic clusters based on skilled manpower and access to economic opportunities

  15. COMMUNICATION INFRASTRUCTURE: About 1.5 lakh Gram Panchayats are being connected with optical fibre for providing internet and Wi-Fi hotspots and access to digital services at low tariffs, through Digital India and the Bharat Net Project. l Further the Digi-Gaon is being planned for providing the platform for the financial services, tele-medicine, education, e-governance, e-marketing and skill development. l The Digital India Program was launched by Gol in July 2015 with a vision to transform India into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy, with three primary focus areas of creation of digital infrastructure, electronic delivery of services and digital literacy, and empowerment of citizens with e-participation in governance

  16. SWACHH BHARAT ABHIYAN: Swachh Bharat Abhiyan has been a revolutionary initiative for embedding the sense of sanitation, hygiene and health, introduced in 2014 and exhibited remarkable progress with a 85% coverage in 2018-19. 0 With Swachh Barat Gramin, over 7.4 crore individual household toilets (IHHLs) have been built by May 2018, with an aim to cover 100% toilet coverage by December 2018.

  17. RRIGATION INFRASTRUCTURE UNDER PMKSY; A very innovative Govt of India Programme to promote productive agriculture is the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY). Under this scheme convergence of investments to expand cultivated area, ensuring water use efficiency, improvement in recharge of aquifers, treatment of waste water from all sources for agriculture etc. one taken up.


  19. Works undertaken under the Mahatma Gandhi Rural Employee Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) are primarily rural infrastructure development works

  20. LINKING FARMERS TO ENAM The reforms such as enactment of APMR act in 1960, and Model APMR Act in 2003 have ushered in some desirable in some states but private investment in agriculture marketing has not been commensurate with the commercialization and diversification that have taken place in the agriculture sector. 0 The agricultural marketing system in India today remains uncoordinated and fragmented, characterized by an inadequate and poorly equipped network of markets in most states, limited market support services, more efficient operations are impeded by a number of regulations and control enjoyed by the States

  21. VALUE ADDITION ON BETTER INCOME & GETTING THE SUPPLY CHAIN SRGHT0 launched to modernise supply chain infrastructure in the agricultural sector. 1 Budget allocation doubled under the Krishi Sampada Yojana to push the food processing industry Operation Greens: To address the challenge of price volatility of perishable commodities like tomato, onion and potato (IOP) to help farmers and consumers l Gramin Agricultural Markets (GrAMs): To develop and upgrade existing 22,000 rural haats into GrAMs to take care of the interests of more than 86% small and marginal farmers These GrAMs, electronically linked to e-NAM will provide farmers facility to make direct sale to consumers and bulk purchases

  22. The Act will help in reducing price spread by enabling direct contact between farmers and consumers or other end-user categories. APLM Act provides multiple options to farmers to sell his produce. It also provides for declaring warehouses and other storage facilities as markets or sub-markets yards, it will enable linkage between the farmer and the buyer. Most important it has provisions for promoting e-trading to link markets across different geographies that will make trade more transparent. 0 The Central Government announced the networking of markets through the central sector scheme of Electronic National Agricultural Market (eNAM) in 2016. eNAM is a pan-India electronic trading portal which networks the existing Agricultural Produce Marketing Committee (APMC) markets to create a unified national market for agricultural commodities.

  23. E NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL MARKET- TECHNOLOGY ting process and flow of goods is to be achieved by bringing inter-connectivity of markets through information technology. l The unified online agricultural market initiatives was launched in Karnataka in 2014 and has been a precursor to E National Agricultural Market. 0 The eNAM Portal provides a single window service for all APMC related information and services. This includes commodity arrivals & prives, buy & sell trade offers and provision to respond to trade offers and among other services.

  24. eNAM addresses the challenges of marketing by creating a unified market through online trading platform, both, at State and National level and promotes uniformly, streamlining of procedures across the integrated markets, removes information asymmetry between buyers and sellers. 0 It promotes real time price discovery, based on actual demand and supply, transparency in auction process, and access to a nationwide market for the farmer, with prices commensurate with quality of his produce and online payment and availability of better quality produce and at more reasonable prices to the consumer. O The national e-market platform will facilitate transparent sale transaction and price discovery initially in regulated markets. O eNAM is beneficial to stakeholders and organisations.

  25. MAJOR CONSTRAINTS IN IMPLEMENTATION OF ENAM Harmonization of Grades and Standards: Trading on virtual platform will require a strong and well-established standardizing and grading system l Integrating value chains: It is required to work for the inclusion of farming commodities and farm operations into other segments of the marketing chain like storage, logistics so that it will help capture a larger share of the final value realised. A wide correlation between value chains of the producer, market channels, retailer and consumer is

  26. Harmonization of Grades and Standards: Trading on virtual platform will require a strong and well-established standardizing and grading system. l Integrating value chains: It is required to work for the inclusion of farming commodities and farm operations into other segments of the marketing chain like storage, logistics so that it will help capture a larger share of the final value realised. A wide correlation between value chains of the producer, market channels, retailer and consumer is

  27. CONCLUSION: One of the biggest challenge is creating awareness about eNAM amongst the small and marginal farmers. It is suggested to have a sensitization and awareness campaign to bring the required information to the farmers. A national e-literacy campaign needs to be initiated to touch 130 millions farmers of the country so that the right integration of farmers with the eNAM portal can take place and give impetus to the benefit for price discovery and better access for enhancing income of farmers.

  28. PMAY-G RURAL HOUSING REVOLUTION Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana-Gramin (PMAY-G) previously Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY), is a social welfare flagship programme, created by the Indian Government, to provide housing for the rural poor in India. Under the scheme, financial assistance worth Rs. 70,000 in plain areas and Rs. 75,000 in difficult area is provided for construction of houses. These houses are equipped q with facilities such as toilet, LPG connection, electricity connection, drinking water and electricity connection. Convergence with other schemes e.g. Swachh Bharat Abhiyan toilets, Ujwala Yojana, LPG gas connection, and Saubhagya Yojana is a hallmark feature of this scheme.

  29. Ministry of Rural Development had developed a performance Index incorporating various parameters of progress under PMAY-G. The index acts as a tool not only to monitor progress of PMAY-G on various parameters across States, Districts, Blocks and Gram Panchayats, but also helps in identifying areas of improvement and in motivating them towards better performance in implementation of the programme.

  30. The Mission aims at development of 300 Rurban clusters. thehe rarger out.comes envisaged under this Mission are : .Bridging the rural-urbarn divide-viz: economic, technological and those related to facilities and services. i Stimulating local economic development with emphasis on reduction of poverty and unemployment in rural areas. ii. Spreading development in the region. iv. Attacking investment in rural areas.

  31. SUB CENTRE: The Sub Centre is the most peripheral and first contact point between the primary health care system and the community. Sub centres are assigned tasks relating to interpersonal communication in order to bring about behavioral change and provide services in relation to maternal and child health, family welfare, nutrition, immunization, diarrhoea control and control of communicable diseases programme. Each Sub Centre is required to be manned by at least one auxiliary nurse midwife (ANM)/female health worker and one male health worker. Under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), there is a provision for one additional second ANM on contract basis. One Lady Health Visitor (LHV) is entrusted with the task of supervision of six Sub Centres.

  32. PRIMARY HEALTH CENTRE (PHC): PHC is the first contact point between village community and the medical officer. The PHCs were envisaged to provide an integrated curative and preventive health care to the rural population. 0 It acts as a referral unit for 6 Sub centres and has 4-6 beds for patients

  33. COMMUNITY HEALTH CENTRES (CHCS): A CHC is required to be manned by four medical specialist i.e. surgeon, physician, gynecologist and pediatrician supported by 21 paramedical and other staff. It has 30 indoor beds with one OT, X-ray, labour room and laboratory facilities. facilities for obstetric care and specialist consultations facities for obs teterelare atre for 4 PHCs and also provides

  34. AYUSHMAN BHARAT: RURAL HEALTHCARE REDEFINED The country has one of the lowest per capita healthcare expenditures in the world Government contribution to insurance stands at roughly 32 percent, as opposed to 83.5 per cent in the UK. The high out-of-pocket expenses in India stem from the fact that 76 per cent of Indians are yet to get health insurance. l The Government has introduced universal health protection scheme called Ayushman Bharat. Twenty five states have already signed with the Union Health Ministry til end of June to start the scheme.

  35. TRANSFORMING DRINKING WATER INFRASTRUCTURIE To quickly and effectively transform backwards districts by 2022 in line with the Government's vision of creating a 'New India', NITI Ayog has recently launched the Aspirational Districts Programme. l In this context, 115 districts have been selected by NITI Ayog from 28 states based on six socio-economic parameters, pertaining to health and nutrition, education, financial inclusion and skill development, agriculture and water resources, and basic infrastructure including drinking water is one of the core dimensions. For this, the Government promotes Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs), aided by technology to bring radical transformation of these aspirational districts

  36. A direct relationship exists between drinking water, health and overall well-being Consumption of contaminated drinking water along with lack of personal hygiene and improper disposal of waste has been the major causes of many diseases in rural areas of India. High rates of infant mortality, severe wasting and stunting among children, high rates of morbidity among the populace and overall low life expectancy can be largely attributed to unsafe drinking water. l t was in this context that the NRDWP was launched in 2009 with the aim to provide every rural person with adequate safe water for drinking, cooking and other basic needs on a sustainable basis, with water quality standards, which should be conveniently accessible at all times and in all situations.

  37. YOUTH AS AGENTS OF CHANGE According to government of India data, 63.5 million people in 20-35 age group have entered the workforce in the last five years. With 55 per cent of the Indian population below the age of 25, India can boast of the largest youth population in the world - a trend that is likely to continue for at least the next two decades. This is called a demographic divident a large number of growth for a long time. l India as a young Nation, after conceding its position as the fastest growing major economy to China for a year in 2017, is likely to reclaim the position in 2018, with growth expected to accelerate to over 7.3% in the year as per the World Bank's Global Economic Prospects report

  38. A social revolution is brewing in India under the Jan Dhan Yojana for financial inclusion, Aadhar biometric identification and mobile telecommunications D Through Bharat net project more than 100,000 Gram Panchayats or Village Councils now have access to high-speed broadband. I BharatNet is expected to make digital delivery of services for health, education, livelihood, skills training, e-agriculture and e-commerce available to the rural poor, in addition to generating massive employment opportunities. Apart from BharatNet, India has more than 1 billion mobile phone subscriptions and 462 million Internet users. India improved its ranking on the Technology Readiness Pillar of the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Index 2017 by three places.

  39. NATIONAL GENERIC DOCUMENT REGISTRATION SYSTEM ADOPTED IN PUNJAB AND ANDMAN & NICOBAR ISLANDS To aptly address the diversity and variations prevalling across Resources has developed a National Generic Document Registration system (NGDRS) through the National Informatics Centre (NIC) to include the requirements of all the states. This generic customizable software, when universally adopted in the country, will enable 'anywhere access' to data and information to both the common man and the enforcement and regulatory agencies. The transparency will be promoted due to registration through digital means and people will get the benefits in a hassle-free manner O The NGDRS system has been piloted in 3 states (Punjab, Rajasthan, Maharashtra,). 6 more states and UTs(Goa, A&N Islands, Bihar, Jharkhand, Manipur, Mizoram) are moving towards this system.

  40. The works are executed by the state governments and monitored by the Ministry of Rural development through National Rural Road Development Agency (NRRDA) set up for the purpose. 0 Adequate maintenance of the existing 4.6 million km of road network is emerging as a major challenge. Many parts of the existing road network are either vulnerable to or have already suffered damage from climate induced events such as floods, high rainfall,

  41. IMPACT OF PMGSY: In agriculture sector, the scheme has opened avenues for increase in usage of fertilizers and improved seeds, affected change in cropping patterns, facilitated increase in use of motorized agriculture vehicles and equipments, triggered increase in production of dairy, poultry and allied activities besides increase in accessibility to markets for selling agricultural produce. It has led to increase in employment opportunities in agriculture sector and increase in employment opportunities outside the village due to greater mobility. D The all weather roads have provided better access to Health Centres, better Availability of vehicles to reach hospitals PMGSY has to some extent contributed to increase in attendance and enrolment of Primary & Middle schools. The other benefits of PMGSY include a diversified livelihood's portfolio, and improved quality of life for rural communities.

  42. LIGHTING A BILLION LIVES Rural electrification is the backbone of rural economy and a basic input for rapid rural development. It is also the main infrastructure for ensuring speedy growth of the agriculture sector and agro based industrial structure in rural areas. D A village is considered electrified if it has provision of basic infrastructure such as distribution transformers and lines in the inhabited locality, provision of electricity in public places like schools, panchayat office, health centres, dispensaries, and community centres, and at least 10% of the total number of households in the village are electrified.

  43. PRADHAN MANTRI SAHAJ BIILI HAR GHAR YOJANA (SAUBHAGYA): Under Saubhagya free electricity connections to all households (both APL and poor families) in rural areas and poor families in urban areas are being provided. Rural Electrification Corporation (REC) has been designated as its nodal agency for the Saubhagya scheme. Under the Saubhagya scheme, DISCOMs or the state electricity distribution utilities organize camps in villages or cluster of villages to facilitate on- thestop filling up of applications to households, They also adopt innovative mechanism through dedicated web-portal and mobile app for collection and consolidation of application form in electronic mode and also capturing process of release of electricity connections.

  44. THE WAY FORWARD: The per capita energy consumption in India remains well below the world averages. This low level of energy availability and consumption tends to affect the poorest the most. l The Government has made clean energy a priority. It has set ambitious target to achieve 175 GW energy through renewable sources of energy, which include 100 GW of solar energy. D A capacity addition of 22,566 MW was achieved in the last year which is the highest ever. The peak shortage has reduced from 11.9% in 2008-09 to 3.2%, the lowest ever. Energy deficit during the current year has also reduced from 11.1 in 2008-09 to 2.8%, the lowest ever in the history of India.