SESSION - SOCIAL STRUCTURE
Contents- .1 Overview 2 History 3 Definitions and concepts 4 Origins and development 5 Critical implicat
INTRODUCTION Social structure, in sociology, the distinctive, stable arrangement of institutions whereby human beings in a society interact and live together.
. Social structure is often treated together with the concept of social change, which deals with the forces that change the social structure and the organization of society
. The term social structure refers to regularities in social life, its application is inconsistent. For example, the term is sometimes wrongly applied when other concepts such as custom, tradition, role, or norm would be more accurate.
. Studies of social structure attempt to explain such matters as integration and trends in inequality. . In the study of these phenomena, sociologists analyze organizations, social categories (such as age groups), or rates (such as of crimeor birth)
This approach, sometimes called formal sociology, does not refer directly to individual behaviour or interpersonal interaction.
Those who study social structure do, however, follow an empirical(observational) approach to research methodology, and epistemology.
Specific social activities take place at specific times, and time is divided into periods that are connected with the rhythms of social life the routines of the day, the month, and the year.
Territorial boundaries delineate these places and are defined by rules of property that determine the use and possession of scarce goods.
Additionally, in any society there is a more or less regular division of labour Yet another universal structural characteristic of human societies is the regulation of violence. . All violence is a potentially disruptive force; at the same time, it is a means of coercion and coordination of activities.
Human beings have formed political units, such as nations, within which the use of violence is strictly regulated and which, at the same time, are organized for the use of violence against outside groups.
The biological connotation The biological connotationsof the term structure are evident in the work of British philosopher Herbert Spencer
. Although social scientists since Spencer and Marx have disagreed on the concept of social structure, their definitions share common elements.
In the most general way, social structure is identified by those features of a social entity (a society or a group within a society) that persist over time, are interrelated, and influence both the functioning of the entity as a whole and the activities of its individual members.
ideas are implicit in the notion of social structure. First, human beings form social relations that are not arbitrary and coincidental but exhibit some regularity and continuity. Second, social life is not chaotic and formless but is, in fact, differentiated into certain groups, positions, and institutions that are interdependent or functionally interrelated . Third, individual choices are shaped and circumscribed by the social environment, because social groups, although constituted by the social activities of individuals, are not a direct result of the wishes and intentions of the individual members. The notion of social structure implies, in other words, that human beings are not completely free and autonomous in their choices and actions but are instead constrained by the social world they inhabit and the social relations they form with one another.
Dr MALVIKA KANDPAL
l believe pupils catch fire from a teacher who is himself a flame Assistant Professor Gold Medalist in Education Faculty of