MANAGEMENT (CODE-17) IT- INFORMATION SYSTEM Presented by - Priya Kerketta
To Learn EConcept of Data, Information and System Introduction to Information System Cybernetic System Dimension of IS
Data, Information & System Concepts .Data Data has been derived from the Latin word ' datum ', literally a given or fact. - Data is the raw material in the production of information Data themselves are fairly useless, but when these data are interpreted and processed to determine its true meaning, they become useful. Data can be of various types: 1. Alphanumeric data - numbers, letters or other characters. 2. Image data - Graphic Images and pictures. 3. Audio data Sound, noise or tones 4. Video data - Moving pictures or images
Data, Information & System - Concepts (Contd) Information When the data is processed, interpreted , organized , structured or presented so as to make meaningful or useful , they are called as information Information provides context for the data. Information is the message (utterance or expression) being conveyed. Characteristics of Information: 1. Accessible - Information should be easily assessible by authorized users so that they can obtain it in right format and at right time to meet their needs. 2. Accurate Accurate information is error free. 3. Complete- Complete information contain all the important facts 4. Economical ta inor is often worse important facts 4. Economical- Information should be relatively economical to produce. whereas partial information is often worse than no information Decision makers must always balance the value of information with the cost of producing it.
Data, Information & System - Concepts (Contd) 5. Flexible - Flexible information can be used for a variety of purpose. 6. Relevant - Relevant Information is important to the decision maker. For ex- Drop in the lumber prices may not be relevant to a computer chip manufacturer. 7. Reliable - The reliability of information depends on the reliability of data collection methods .In other instances it depends on the source of information 8. Secure Information should be secure from access by unauthorized users. 9. SimpleInformation should be simple and not overly complex. Sophisticated and detailed information might not be needed. 10. Timely Timely information is delivered when it is needed. 11. Verifiable - Information should be verifiable.
Data, Information & System - Concepts (Contd) System A system is a group of interrelated components working together toward a common goal by accepting inputs and producing outputs in an organized transformation process. Components of System There are three basic component of a system. a) Input- It involves capturing and assembling elements that enter to the system to be processed. Ex- raw materials, input, data etc. b) Process It involves the transformation process of input to output. c) Output- It involves the transforming element that has been produced by a transformation process to their ultimate destination.
Types of System: 1. Open system- It is one that interacts with its environment and thus exchanges information , material ,or energy with the environment , including random and undefined inputs. Such systems are 'self-organizing', because they change their organization in response to changing conditions. 2. Closed system- It is one which doesn't interact with its environment. Such systems , in business world, are rare. Thus the systems that are relatively isolated from the environment but not completely closed are termed as closed system. 3. Dynamic system - when the interrelated component of the system interact with each other and this controlled by management then it is known as Dynamic system 4. Cybernetic System- The dynamic system implementing the concept of feedback and control is known as cybernetic system. 5. Adoptive system- A system having the ability to change itself and its environment in order to survive is called an Adoptive systemm
Introduction to Information System An information system can be defined as: An organized combination of People - Hardware Software - Communication Networks - Data resources - Policies and Procedures which stores, retrieves, transforms and broadcast information in an organization Examples of Information system are: Airline reservations ( seat booking, payment schedules, boarding list). Bank operations (deposit, transfer, withdrawal ) electronically with a distinguish payment gateways. Integration of department with the help of contemporary software's like ERP
Cybernetic System e All system have input, processing and output. e A cybernetic system, a self-monitoring , self-regulating system, adds feedback and control: Feedback is data about the performance of a system Control involves monitoring and evaluating feedback to determine whether a system is moving towards the achievement of its goal
Dimension of Information System There are three important dimensions of Information system: . Organizations It includes the: People - Structure - Business Process Culture - Politics Management It includes the managers who are the: - Sense maker - Decision maker - Planners Innovators of new processes - Leader set agendas Managers who can understand the role of IS in creating business value are the key ingredients to success with systems and cannot be easily replicated by your competitors.
From Rourkela, Odisha/MBA in HR and Finance/UGC-NET 2018 qualified in the subject of Management/5 years of Experience as a CCE.